Joosten and coauthors report on the associations between conventional cardiovascular risk factors and risk of peripheral artery disease in men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.
In a 2-year retrospective cohort study of 308 US nursing homes, Trivedi and coauthors assess rates and identify factors associated with increased risk of all-cause hospitalization and mortality during norovirus outbreak vs nonoutbreak periods.
Most medical interventions have modest effects but occasionally some trials find very large effects. Pereira and coauthors assessed the frequency, features, and credibility of very large treatment effects in an evaluation of 85 002 forest plots in 3082 review articles. In an Editorial, Oxman discusses implications for clinical research and patient health.
As both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia may adversely affect the developing brain, Mesotten and coauthors studied whether long-term follow-up was required to exclude harm and validated short-term benefits of tight glucose control in a large randomized controlled trial of 700 children. See the related Editorial by Tasker.
Serpa Neto and coauthors performed a meta-analysis to investigate lower vs higher tidal volumes in patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who receive mechanical ventilation. In an Editorial, Ferguson discusses the evidence needed to determine the benefit of setting standard tidal volumes for patients without ARDS.