In the Aliskiren Trial on Acute Heart Failure Outcomes (ASTRONAUT), Gheorghiade and coauthors investigated whether aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor,
when added to the standard therapy, would reduce the rates of cardiovascular death and heart failure rehospitalization among patients who had been hospitalized for heart failure.
To investigate long-term mortality and cause of death after acute stroke in younger adults, Rutten-Jacobs and coauthors conducted a prospective cohort study of
survival status among 959 patients aged 18 through 50 years with first transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage. Hankey provides
comment in the related Editorial.
To determine whether emergency department use can be reduced by limiting payment for nonemergency visits, Raven and coauthors applied an adapted version
of the New York University emergency department algorithm to a national database to assess whether patients' presenting complaints corresponded to the
severity of their discharge diagnoses.
Using the case of Ms L, a 64-year-old woman with 30 previous pack-years of smoking, Boiselle discusses evidence for use of chest x-rays and low-dose
computed tomography in screening for lung cancer.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational phase 3 trial in 197 intensive care units (1961 patients), Opal and coauthors explored whether eritoran, a TLR4 antagonist, significantly reduced sepsis-induced mortality.