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Original Investigation
September 2016

Treatment and Outcomes of Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Shock After Public Reporting Policy Changes in New York

Author Affiliations
  • 1Division of Cardiology, University of Washington, Seattle
  • 2Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver
  • 3Division of Cardiology, St Luke’s/Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, Missouri
  • 4Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts
JAMA Cardiol. 2016;1(6):648-654. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2016.1806
Abstract

Importance  In 2006, New York began excluding patients with cardiogenic shock from the publicly reported percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) risk-adjusted mortality analyses.

Objective  To examine the effects of the New York shock-exclusion policy change on rates of revascularization and mortality for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This study used several comprehensive statewide hospitalization databases to identify patients with AMI and shock from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2012, in New York and a series of comparator states (Massachusetts, Michigan, and New Jersey from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2012, and California from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2011). Data analysis was performed from October 1, 2015, to March 15, 2016.

Main Outcomes and Measures  A difference-in-differences approach was used to evaluate whether the likelihood of receiving PCI and surviving to discharge differed after the policy change in New York in 2006 compared with comparator states that did not enact such a change.

Results  Among 45 977 patients with AMI and cardiogenic shock (11 298 in New York), 21 974 (47.8%) underwent PCI. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 69.7 (13.2) years, and 18 139 (39.5%) were female. After adjusting for patient factors, patients in New York were significantly more likely to undergo PCI after the public reporting policy changes than they were previously (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.28; 95% CI, 1.19-1.37; P < .001) compared with a 9% increase in comparator states during the same period (aRR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.13; P < .001; interaction P < .001). Nevertheless, rates of PCI remained lower in New York compared with comparator states throughout the study period. The adjusted risk of in-hospital death among patients in New York with AMI and shock decreased significantly faster after the policy change (aRR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.72-0.81; P < .001) compared with comparator states (aRR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87-0.94; P < .001; interaction P < .001).

Conclusions and Relevance  The exclusion of patients with ongoing cardiogenic shock from New York PCI public reports in 2006 was associated with a significant increase in the use of PCI for cardiogenic shock and a concomitant decrease in in-hospital mortality, exceeding simultaneously observed trends in the comparator states. However, rates of PCI for AMI and shock were lower in New York throughout the study. Alterations in policies related to reporting mortality outcomes after cardiovascular procedures may have significant implications for physician behavior and the public health.

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