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Comment & Response
January 4, 2017

Effect of Iron Levels on Women After Premature or Early-Onset Menopause—Reply

Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands
  • 2Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England
JAMA Cardiol. Published online January 4, 2017. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2016.5084

In Reply Our study1 showed that the early onset of menopause is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. We agree with Hayes et al as well as Mascitelli and Goldstein that elevated iron levels observed after menopause can be a potential mechanism linking the early onset of menopause with adverse cardiometabolic health. Iron is one of the most abundant metals in the human body and is required as an essential cofactor in many important biological processes, such as oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, energy production, and regulation of cell growth and differentiation.2

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