The biopsy specimen demonstrated a marked inflammatory infiltrate throughout the dermis, with a heavy concentrate of cells predominating in the upper dermis and focally within areas of overlying epidermis. The infiltrate consisted of a mixture of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The dermal capillaries revealed hyperplastic endothelial cells, with the surrounding admixture of inflammatory cells.
Thromboangiitis obliterans is an inflammatory obliterative disease that affects small and medium-sized arteries, veins, and nerves. Although von Winiwarter1 was the first to describe the disease in 1879, Buerger2 was the first to provide a detailed and accurate description of the histopathologic findings in 1908.
Chronic Ulcerations in the Upper and Lower Extremities. Arch Dermatol. 1998;134(8):1019-1024. doi: