Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine with multiple functions. It is produced by T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Dranoff et al1 were the first to show the antitumor reactivity in B16 mice following active immunization with B16 melanoma cells transfected with the GM-CSF gene. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor has also been reported to accelerate pressure ulcer healing, and regression of metastatic carcinoma in skin appendages.2,3 Recently, Leong et al4 demonstrated that autologous tumor vaccine with local recombinant human GM-CSF (rhGM-CSF) injections resulted in tumor regression in patients with stage IV melanoma.
Vaquerano JE, Cadbury P, Treseler P, Sagebiel R, Leong SPL. Regression of In-Transit Melanoma of the Scalp With Intralesional Recombinant Human Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor. Arch Dermatol. 1999;135(10):1276-1277. doi:10-1001/pubs.Arch Dermatol.-ISSN-0003-987x-135-10-dlt1099