Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in much of the Middle East. Personnel from more than 55 nations are currently participating in Middle East peacekeeping and military activities.
Twenty-three Fijian members of a military observational force in Sinai, Egypt, acquired cutaneous leishmaniasis. They were treated successfully with 1-month courses of ketoconazole.
Soldiers who acquire cutaneous leishmaniasis may return home to nations where cutaneous leishmaniasis is unknown or rarely diagnosed. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania major, may be treated with ketoconazole rather than antimonials.(Arch Dermatol. 1992;128:83-87)
Norton SA, Frankenburg S, Klaus SN. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Acquired During Military Service in the Middle East. Arch Dermatol. 1992;128(1):83-87. doi:10.1001/archderm.1992.01680110093013