Melasma is a common acquired symmetric hypermelanosis characterized by irregular light- to gray-brown macules and patches involving sunexposed areas of skin. Etiologic factors in the pathogenesis of melasma include genetic influences, exposure to UV radiation, pregnancy, hormonal therapies, cosmetics, phototoxic drugs, and antiseizure medications.
Melasma is often a therapeutically challenging disease, and current treatments include hypopigmenting agents, chemical peels, and lasers. Hypopigmenting agents include phenolic and nonphenolic derivatives. Phenolic agents include hydroquinone and hydroquinone combination preparations. Despite controversies regarding the issue of hydroquinone-induced ochronosis, hydroquinone remains the most effective topically applied bleaching agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of melasma. Nonphenolic bleaching agents include tretinoin and azelaic acid. Superficial, medium, and deep chemical peels are more often used in lighter-complexioned patients. Such peels should be used with caution in blacks. Although lasers have demonstrated significant efficacy in the treatment of a variety of hyperpigmentary disorders, their precise efficacy and place in the therapy of melasma have yet to be established.
In the hierarchy of therapies for melasma, the treating physician must consider the devastating psychosocial impact of pigmentary imperfections within the realm of the benefits and risks associated with each treatment.(Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:1453-1457)
Grimes PE. MelasmaEtiologic and Therapeutic Considerations. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131(12):1453-1457. doi:10.1001/archderm.1995.01690240119022