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Table 1. 
Demographics and Risk Factors of Men With Newly Diagnosed Melanoma and Their Female Spouses
Demographics and Risk Factors of Men With Newly Diagnosed Melanoma and Their Female Spouses
Table 2. 
Skin Cancer Prevention and Skin Self-examination Practices and Use of Health Information by Men With Newly Diagnosed Melanoma and Their Unaffected Female Spousesa
Skin Cancer Prevention and Skin Self-examination Practices and Use of Health Information by Men With Newly Diagnosed Melanoma and Their Unaffected Female Spousesa
1.
Geller  ACMiller  DRAnnas  GDDemierre  MFGilchrest  BAKoh  HK Melanoma incidence and mortality among US whites, 1968-1999. JAMA 2002;288 (14) 1719- 1720
PubMedArticle
2.
Brady  MSOliveria  SAChristos  PJ  et al.  Patterns of detection in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Cancer 2000;89 (2) 342- 347
PubMedArticle
3.
Koh  HKMiller  DRGeller  ACClapp  RWMercer  MBLew  RA Who discovers melanoma? patterns from a population-based survey. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;26 (6) 914- 919
PubMedArticle
4.
Robinson  JKRigel  DSAmonette  RA What promotes skin-self examination? J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38 (5, pt 1) 752- 757
PubMedArticle
5.
Miller  DRGeller  ACWyatt  SW  et al.  Melanoma awareness and self-examination practices: results of a United States survey. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996;34 (6) 962- 970
PubMedArticle
6.
Geller  ACEmmons  KBrooks  DR  et al.  Skin cancer prevention and detection practices among siblings of patients with melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;49 (4) 631- 638
PubMedArticle
7.
Swetter  SMJohnson  TMMiller  DRLayton  CJBrooks  KRGeller  AC Melanoma in middle-aged and older men: a multi-institutional survey study of factors related to tumor thickness. Arch Dermatol 2009;145 (4) 397- 404
8.
Melia  JHarland  CMoss  SEiser  JRPendry  L Feasibility of targeted early detection for melanoma: a population-based screening study. Br J Cancer 2000;82 (9) 1605- 1609
PubMedArticle
9.
Brandberg  YBolund  CMichelson  HMansson-Brahme  ERingborg  USjoden  PO Perceived susceptibility to and knowledge of malignant melanoma: screening participants vs the general population. Prev Med 1996;25 (2) 170- 177
PubMedArticle
10.
Weinstock  MAMartin  RARisica  PM  et al.  Thorough skin examination for the early detection of melanoma. Am J Prev Med 1999;17 (3) 169- 175
PubMedArticle
11.
Schwartz  JLWang  TSHamilton  TALowe  LSondak  VKJohnson  TM Thin primary cutaneous melanomas: associated detection patterns, lesion characteristics, and patient characteristics. Cancer 2002;95 (7) 1562- 1568
PubMedArticle
12.
Robinson  JKTurrisi  RStapleton  BS Efficacy of a partner assistance intervention design to increase skin self-examination performance. Arch Dermatol 2007;143 (1) 37- 41
PubMedArticle
13.
Robinson  JKStapleton  JTurrisi  R Relationship and partner moderator variables increase self-efficacy of performing skin self-examination. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008;58 (5) 755- 762
PubMedArticle
Research Letter
April 2009

Gender Differences in Melanoma Awareness and Detection Practices Between Middle-aged and Older Men With Melanoma and Their Female Spouses

Arch Dermatol. 2009;145(4):488-490. doi:10.1001/archdermatol.2009.42

Invasive melanoma incidence and mortality rates have risen most steeply in the United States in middle-aged and older men. From 1969 to 1999, melanoma incidence increased 3-fold in middle-aged men and 5-fold in older men. During this period, mortality rates increased 66% in middle-aged men and 157% in older men compared with 19% and 49% in women in these age groups, respectively.1

Men are less likely than women to examine their own skin, seek physician examinations for melanoma, or examine the skin of their spouses.24 Observed sex differences in melanoma awareness and detection practices have previously been reported in population-based studies of average-risk individuals and in siblings of patients with melanoma.5,6 Our aim was to compare awareness and screening practices in middle-aged and older men with melanoma with those of their unaffected female spouses and/or partners (hereinafter “female spouses”; only 7 of 158 women [4%] identified themselves as partners). Such information would be useful in planning family-based interventions to enhance early detection of melanoma in this high-risk group.

Methods

Male patients 40 years or older with invasive cutaneous melanoma and their female spouses were surveyed concurrently within 3 months of diagnosis at Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California; Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California; and the University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, from September 1, 2004, through January 31, 2006, as described elsewhere in this issue of the Archives.7 After providing their informed consent, couples were asked to complete surveys without consulting each other. Most survey questions pertained to the year prior to the man's melanoma diagnosis.

Statistical analyses were performed using SAS software, version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina). Each measure was dichotomized, and the responses of men and their female spouses were compared using the McNemar χ2 test for paired data. We report P values and assume statistical significance at α = .05.

Results

A total of 164 men of a larger cohort7 had female spouses, 6 of whom declined to participate (4% female spouse refusal rate); 158 couples completed dual surveys. Ninety-eight percent of female spouses lived with the affected man, and 94% had known him for at least 10 years.

The results of our analysis are summarized in Table 1 and Table 2. Female spouses were more likely than their husbands to (1) be aware of the ABCD rule (asymmetry, border irregularity, color variegation, and diameter >6 mm) (31% vs 18%) (P = .004); (2) read information about skin cancer detection (85% vs 65%) (P < .001); (3) perform skin self-examination (58% vs 46%) (P = .04); and (4) use sunscreen regularly (55% vs 32%) (P < .001), despite having lower levels of education (16% college education or beyond vs 52% for men) (P < .001). Men agreed or strongly agreed that their female spouses (1) ensured that the men went to see a physician (80%); (2) kept in touch with health matters better than the men did (69%); and (3) helped the men with skin self-examination (62%).

Comment

We sought to determine melanoma awareness and risk-reduction practices in the year prior to diagnosis for men with newly diagnosed melanoma and their unaffected female spouses. While other studies8,9 have demonstrated sex differences regarding melanoma awareness, ours is unique to our knowledge in its concurrent examination of awareness and detection practices in male patients and their unaffected female spouses. Despite having equal sun sensitivity and only half the rates of personal and/or family history of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer, female spouses had greater melanoma awareness and risk-reduction practices than the men.

Recognition of the unique role of the female spouse is crucial to improving screening and skin self-examination (SSE) efforts in middle-aged and older men. Sex differences in SSE have been demonstrated, and earlier detection of melanoma by women is attributable, at least in part, to their greater health information–seeking practices.10 Schwartz et al11 found that women had significantly thinner primary melanomas than men, but men and women had equally thin second primary melanomas. Increased levels of awareness in both men and women were believed to contribute to detection of thinner subsequent melanomas, and these results suggest that heightened awareness can lead to earlier detection.

Joint education of patients and their partners may improve secondary prevention for melanoma. Robinson et al12 demonstrated significant improvement in SSE through couples training compared with solo learning in a randomized, controlled intervention designed to enhance partner participation. Efficacy of SSE improved with increasing quality of the couple's relationship and the partner's motivation and ability to provide social support.13

Possible study limitations, as described previously,8 include reliance on self-reported information, recall bias, and uncontrolled findings resulting from potential differences in study sites.

In conclusion, female spouses should be made aware of their potential to improve their husbands' melanoma screening practices. Health fairs, common to many areas, should consider integrating melanoma screening into existing women's health services. How to publicize and frame messages to draw men's attention and participation warrants further attention.

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Article Information

Correspondence: Dr Swetter, Department of Dermatology, Stanford University Medical Center, 900 Blake Wilbur Dr, W0069, Stanford, CA 94305 (sswetter@stanford.edu).

Author Contributions: All authors had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Swetter, Johnson, Miller, and Geller. Acquisition of data: Swetter, Layton, and Johnson. Analysis and interpretation of data: Swetter, Layton, Brooks, and Geller. Drafting of the manuscript: Swetter, Layton, Johnson, Brooks, Miller, and Geller. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Swetter, Johnson, and Geller. Statistical analysis: Brooks and Miller. Obtained funding: Swetter and Geller. Administrative, technical, and material support: Swetter, Johnson, and Geller. Study supervision: Swetter and Geller.

Financial Disclosure: None reported.

Funding/Support: This study was funded by the Harry J. Lloyd Charitable Trust for Melanoma Research, Overland Park, Kansas.

Role of the Sponsor: The sponsor had no role in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, or in the preparation of the manuscript, review, or approval of the manuscript.

Additional Contributions: Mitzi C. Rabe, RN, BSN, OCN, served as study coordinator at the University of Michigan. The Melanoma Prevention Working Group provided valuable contributions to the study design and analysis.

References
1.
Geller  ACMiller  DRAnnas  GDDemierre  MFGilchrest  BAKoh  HK Melanoma incidence and mortality among US whites, 1968-1999. JAMA 2002;288 (14) 1719- 1720
PubMedArticle
2.
Brady  MSOliveria  SAChristos  PJ  et al.  Patterns of detection in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Cancer 2000;89 (2) 342- 347
PubMedArticle
3.
Koh  HKMiller  DRGeller  ACClapp  RWMercer  MBLew  RA Who discovers melanoma? patterns from a population-based survey. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;26 (6) 914- 919
PubMedArticle
4.
Robinson  JKRigel  DSAmonette  RA What promotes skin-self examination? J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38 (5, pt 1) 752- 757
PubMedArticle
5.
Miller  DRGeller  ACWyatt  SW  et al.  Melanoma awareness and self-examination practices: results of a United States survey. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996;34 (6) 962- 970
PubMedArticle
6.
Geller  ACEmmons  KBrooks  DR  et al.  Skin cancer prevention and detection practices among siblings of patients with melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;49 (4) 631- 638
PubMedArticle
7.
Swetter  SMJohnson  TMMiller  DRLayton  CJBrooks  KRGeller  AC Melanoma in middle-aged and older men: a multi-institutional survey study of factors related to tumor thickness. Arch Dermatol 2009;145 (4) 397- 404
8.
Melia  JHarland  CMoss  SEiser  JRPendry  L Feasibility of targeted early detection for melanoma: a population-based screening study. Br J Cancer 2000;82 (9) 1605- 1609
PubMedArticle
9.
Brandberg  YBolund  CMichelson  HMansson-Brahme  ERingborg  USjoden  PO Perceived susceptibility to and knowledge of malignant melanoma: screening participants vs the general population. Prev Med 1996;25 (2) 170- 177
PubMedArticle
10.
Weinstock  MAMartin  RARisica  PM  et al.  Thorough skin examination for the early detection of melanoma. Am J Prev Med 1999;17 (3) 169- 175
PubMedArticle
11.
Schwartz  JLWang  TSHamilton  TALowe  LSondak  VKJohnson  TM Thin primary cutaneous melanomas: associated detection patterns, lesion characteristics, and patient characteristics. Cancer 2002;95 (7) 1562- 1568
PubMedArticle
12.
Robinson  JKTurrisi  RStapleton  BS Efficacy of a partner assistance intervention design to increase skin self-examination performance. Arch Dermatol 2007;143 (1) 37- 41
PubMedArticle
13.
Robinson  JKStapleton  JTurrisi  R Relationship and partner moderator variables increase self-efficacy of performing skin self-examination. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008;58 (5) 755- 762
PubMedArticle
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