The periocular region serves to frame the eyes and provides a focal point of facial aesthetics. Periocular aesthetics can be evaluated by 2-dimensional (2-D) (x,y coordinate) frontal plane considerations or by 3-dimensional (3-D) considerations, in which the z coordinate is significantly affected by volume considerations. Millimeter differences between the right and left periocular regions, particularly when viewed in the 2-D frontal plane, can result in significant asymmetry and periocular disharmony. Nonsurgical modalities in the form of fillers and toxins provide the tools for subtle aesthetic modifications in the second and third dimension in a reversible, modifiable manner.
Mancini R. Nonsurgical Considerations for Addressing Periocular AestheticsA Conceptual Dimensional Approach. JAMA Facial Plast Surg. 2014;16(6):451-456. doi:10.1001/jamafacial.2014.498