The mid-19th century saw something of a revolution in Western European art, which began with the French painter Gustave Courbet (1819-1877). In 1855, Courbet had a show in Paris called Le Réalisme, the purpose being to show nature as it was, not a beautified version. The paintings were a protest against the established conventions of the day. This concern with the pretentiousness of art also led a group of young English painters to follow a similar path. This group felt that after Raphael art had taken a wrong turn, attempting to idealize nature rather than show her blemishes and all. The initials “PRB,” for Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, first appeared on a number of paintings exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1848. Its most gifted member was Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882), the son of an Italian refugee.
Naini FB. Desdemona’s Death Song by Dante Gabriel Rossetti: Shakespeare, Khayyam, and the Pre-Raphaelites. JAMA Facial Plast Surg. 2014;16(6):391-392. doi:10.1001/jamafacial.2014.709