Williams Center for Facial Plastic Surgery
1072 Troy-Schenectady Rd
Latham, NY 12110
Copyright 2002 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Applicable FARS/DFARS Restrictions Apply to Government Use.2002
THE SECOND half of the 19th century was a period of profound change
for Japan on every major front: societal, cultural, political, and military.
After 250 years of Tokugawa sovereign rule, the isolated feudal Japan that
was dominated by the system of shogun and samurai gave way to the modern era
that would become steeped in Western culture. During this protracted period
of Tokugawa rule, no foreigner was permitted entry into the cloistered environs
of Japan; and sailors who found themselves washed ashore were forced to remain
to preclude disclosure of Japanese secrets. The revolution began in 1853,
when US Commodore Matthew C. Perry ventured to the shores of the Japanese
archipelago with his ominous colonial fleets to impart western values and
to compel his Japanese brethren to engage in foreign commerce. The dismantling
of the traditional Japanese system evolved over a 20-year period as political
unrest in response to the foreign threat grew. Tokugawa rule ended on January
3, 1868, when Satsuma radicals seized the imperial palace and claimed authority
under the Emperor Meiji.
Lam SM. Mikamo's Double-Eyelid Blepharoplasty and the Westernization of Japan. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2002;4(3):201-202. doi: