From the Departments of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis (Dr Kokoska), and Penn State University, Hershey, Pa (Dr Stack); St John's Mercy Medical Center, Creve Coeur, Mo (Dr Hardeman); and Department of Otolaryngology and Communicative Sciences, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (Dr Citardi). Dr Citardi is a member of the scientific advisory board of CBYON Inc, Mountain View, Calif, a manufacturer of surgical navigation systems.
Reconstruction of the craniofacial skeleton after traumatic injury relies on immediate adjacent nondisplaced bone for restoration of contour. In complex fractures, neighboring bone may be lost or significantly fragmented, leaving little guidance to the 3-dimensional skeletal architecture. Recently, image guidance systems have been used in neurosurgery and sinus and spine surgery for intraoperative corroboration using preoperative radiologic images. We report the intraoperative use of an image guidance system for real-time localization of displaced facial skeletal segments during reduction and internal fixation.
Kokoska MS, Hardeman S, Stack BC, Citardi MJ. Computer-Aided Reduction of Zygomatic Fractures. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2003;5(5):434-436. doi:10.1001/archfaci.5.5.434