University of Freiberg
Department of Oral/Maxillofacial Surgery
Hugstetter Str 55
79106 Freiburg, Germany
Copyright 2003 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Applicable FARS/DFARS Restrictions Apply to Government Use.2003
CORRECTIONS of complex orbital deformities are still a surgical challenge. Side symmetry provides an important morphological goal (ie, why a face appears as normal or harmonic) as well as function (eg, by allowing for binocular vision with central fusion of the efferent visual impulses). Orbital symmetry cannot be reduced to 1 facial plane. It might include 2 or even all 3 planes, which define the enophthalmos or exophthalmos, distorted orbit, and teleorbitism. Among the presurgical planning modalities, computer-assisted surgery is regarded as an interesting technique. Because of the insufficiency of registration systems or invasive referencing procedures, the combination of preoperative planning, virtual correction, intraoperative navigation, and postoperative control has not become a routine procedure in the treatment of orbital deformities, yet.
Schmelzeisen R, Schramm A. Computer-Assisted Reconstruction of the Facial Skeleton. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2003;5(5):437. doi:10.1001/archfaci.5.5.437