Author Affiliations: Departments of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery (Drs Haegen and M. A. Keefe) and Ophthalmology (Dr K. S. Keefe), Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, Calif.
Correspondence: Michael A. Keefe, MD, Department of Otolaryngology–@Head and Neck Surgery, Naval Medical Center San Diego, 34800 Bob Wilson Dr, Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92134-2200 (firstname.lastname@example.org).
The conflict in the Middle East has led to an increase in the incidence and severity of facial trauma evaluated at tertiary military medical facilities. The Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, Calif, has treated 5 patients with penetrating injuries to the orbit with associated comminuted fractures. We have used the technology of image-guided surgery to assist in reconstructing these injuries. Image-guided surgery has many applications in the head and neck. This review consists of a series of traumatic applications of the image-guided system with a focus on orbital and midfacial trauma. We will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of this technique compared with previouly described techniques.
Haegen TW, Keefe MA, Keefe KS. Use of Image-Guided Systems in the Reconstruction of the Periorbital Region. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2005;7(4):266-271. doi:10.1001/archfaci.7.4.266