Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Objective: To review evidence-based knowledge of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).
Data Sources and Extraction: We reviewed published articles regarding pediatric OSAS; extracted the clinical symptoms, syndromes, polysomnographic findings and variables, and treatment options, and reviewed the authors' recommendations.
Data Synthesis: Orthodontic and craniofacial abnormalities related to pediatric OSAS are commonly ignored, despite their impact on public health. One area of controversy involves the use of a respiratory disturbance index to define various abnormalities, but apneas and hypopneas are not the only abnormalities obtained on polysomnograms, which can be diagnostic for sleep-disordered breathing. Adenotonsillectomy is often considered the treatment of choice for pediatric OSAS. However, many clinicians may not discern which patient population is most appropriate for this type of intervention; the isolated finding of small tonsils is not sufficient to rule out the need for surgery. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure can be an effective treatment option, but it entails cooperation and training of the child and the family. A valid but often overlooked alternative, orthodontic treatment, may complement adenotonsillectomy.
Conclusions: Many complaints and syndromes are associated with pediatric OSAS. This diagnosis should be considered in patients who report the presence of such symptoms and syndromes.
Guilleminault C, Lee JH, Chan A
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Is Not Needed to Clear Cervical Spines in Blunt Trauma Patients With Normal Computed Tomographic Results and No Motor Deficits
Hypothesis: Trauma patients with normal motor examination results and normal cervical spine helical computed tomographic (CT) scans with sagittal reconstructions do not have significant cervical spine injury.
Design: Prospectively collected registry data.
Setting: Level II community-based trauma center.
Patients: All patients admitted to the trauma service from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2003.
Main Outcome Measures: Injury detected by CT and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine. Neurologic examination and need for surgery were secondary outcomes.
Results: During the study period, 2854 trauma patients were admitted, of whom 91.2% had blunt trauma. Of these patients, 56.2% had a closed head injury. One hundred patients had cervical spine and/or spinal cord injuries. Eighty-five patients had a cervical spine injury diagnosed by CT. Fifteen patients had admission neurologic deficits not seen on CT, and 7 of these patients had non-bony abnormalities on MRI. Ninety-three patients had a normal admission motor examination result, a CT result negative for trauma, and persistent cervical spine pain, and were examined with MRI. All MRI examination results were negative for clinically significant injury. Seventeen patients had MRIs that showed degenerative disc disease, and 6 had spinal canal stenosis secondary to ossification. Twelve comatose patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score, <9), moving all 4 extremities on arrival, with normal CT results of the cervical spine, were examined with MRI. All of these MRI examination results were negative for injury. None of the patients experienced neurologic deterioration. No patient required operative management of spinal injury.
Conclusion: Blunt trauma patients with normal motor examination results and normal CT results of the cervical spine do not require further radiologic examination before clearing the cervical spine.
Schuster R, Waxman K, Sanchez B, Becerra S, Chung R, Conner S, Jones T
Surgery in Developing Countries: Essential Training in Residency
Hypothesis: A surgical elective in a developing country setting is an essential new component in academic residency training.
Design: A survey of residents and faculty within the Department of Surgery at the University of California-San Francisco, and a collaborative program piloted between the Department of Surgery at the University of California-San Francisco and Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda, including a 6-week clinical elective.
Setting: Mulago and Nsambya hospitals in Kampala, Uganda.
Participants: Two residents and three faculty advisors at the University of California-San Francisco.
Intervention: Development of a 6-week pilot clinical surgical elective.
Main Outcome Measures: Assessment of the level of interest in international health in an academic surgery program; pathology and case variety, diagnostic methods, and surgical and anesthetic resources and techniques in a pilot developing country.
Results: Forty percent of residents enter residency with prior international health experience whereas 90% express interest in a developing country elective. Twenty-five percent of faculty participate in voluntary international surgical service and research projects. As a result of the survey and the level of interest in our program, two visits to Uganda were made and a residency elective rotation was successfully created. This resulted in exposure of residents to the educational benefits of learning in a resource-constrained setting: a broader scope of surgical conditions and pathology, greater reliance on history-taking and physical examination skills in a low-technology environment, and sociocultural aspects of care provision. Greater questions about global health equity, access to information, and the role of surgery in public health are raised along with potential challenges in international collaboration.
Conclusions: A developing country surgical experience complements the academic mission of service, training, and research, and should be an essential component of surgical training programs. There is interest among residents and faculty in such a program as well as a need for greater commitment to north-south collaborations among academic surgical institutions and societies, as has been successfully implemented abroad. More generally, surgery is an integral part of public health and health systems development worldwide.
Ozgediz D, Roayaie K, Debas H, Schecter W, Farmer D
The Burden of Staphylococcus aureus Infections on Hospitals in the United States: An Analysis of the 2000 and 2001 Nationwide Inpatient Sample Database
Background: Previous studies have investigated the impact of Staphylococcus aureus infections on individual hospitals, but to date, no study using nationally representative data has estimated this burden.
Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the 2000 and 2001 editions of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, which represents a stratified 20% sample of hospitals in the United States. All inpatient discharge data from 994 hospitals in 28 states during 2000 and from 986 hospitals in 33 states during 2001, representing approximately 14 million inpatient stays, were analyzed to determine the association of S aureus infections with length of stay, total charges, and in-hospital mortality.
Results:Staphylococcus aureus infection was reported as a discharge diagnosis for 0.8% of all hospital inpatients, or 292 045 stays per year. Inpatients with S aureus infection had, on average, 3 times the length of hospital stay (14.3 vs 4.5 days; P<.001), 3 times the total charges (48 824 US dollars vs 14 141 US dollars; P<.001), and 5 times the risk of in-hospital death (11.2% vs 2.3%; P<.001) than inpatients without this infection. Even when controlling for hospital fixed effects and for patient differences in diagnosis-related groups, age, sex, race, and comorbidities, the differences in mean length of stay, total charges, and mortality were significantly higher for hospitalizations associated with S aureus.
Conclusions:Staphylococcus aureus infections represent a considerable burden to US hospitals, particularly among high-risk patient populations. The potential benefits to hospitals in terms of reduced use of resources and costs as well as improved outcomes from preventing S aureus infections are significant.
Noskin GA, Rubin RJ, Schentag JJ, Kluytmans J, Hedblom EC, Smulders M, Lapetina E, Gemmen E
Abstracts: In Other Archives Journals. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2005;7(6):424–425. doi: