Occurrences of melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have been associated with varying geography. Our goal was to evaluate differences in risk of these skin cancers according to residence at varying UV indices at 3 time points.
Prospective 1984-2002 study of 84 836 female nurses who lived in different UV index regions of the United States at birth and at 15 or 30 years of age. The outcome measure was diagnosis of melanoma, SCC, or BCC.
During the 18-year study, 420 cases of melanoma, 863 cases of SCC, and 8215 cases of BCC occurred. At 30 years of age, age-adjusted risks for SCC were 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.76) and 1.90 (95% CI, 1.51-2.36) for women residing in states with a UV index of 6 (medium) and 7 or more (high), respectively. Although elevated, the age-adjusted risk of BCC at 30 years of age associated with residence in these states was substantially less. Although the risk of melanoma was not elevated for women living in these states at 30 years of age, it was significantly elevated among women living in states with UV indices of 6 at birth and at 15 years of age. There was no material change in risk estimates with multivariate adjustment. For women who reported living in states with UV indices of 7 or more at all 3 time points, the multivariate risk of SCC was highest.
The risk of SCC is independently affected by residence in locations with medium and high UV indices; the gradient of risk is weaker for BCC; and the risk of melanoma does not change significantly across this gradient.
To describe the prevalence of pain in a large cohort of trauma patients 1 year after injury and to examine personal, injury, and treatment factors that predict the presence of chronic pain in these patients.
Sixty-nine hospitals in 14 states in the United States.
There were 3047 patients (10 371 weighted) aged 18 to 84 years who were admitted to the hospital because of acute trauma and survived to 12 months after injury.
Pain 12 months after injury measured with the Chronic Pain Grade Scale.
At 12 months after injury, 62.7% of patients reported injury-related pain. Most patients had pain in more than 1 body region, and the mean (SD) severity of pain in the last month was 5.5 (4.8) on a 10-point scale. The reported presence of pain varied with age and was more common in women and those who had untreated depression before injury. Pain at 3 months was predictive of both the presence and higher severity of pain at 12 months. Lower pain severity was reported by patients with a college education and those with no previous functional limitations.
Most trauma patients have moderately severe pain from their injuries 1 year later. Earlier and more intensive interventions to treat pain in trauma patients may be needed.
To evaluate the clinical complaints, laboratory data, treatment, and follow-up of patients with delayed adverse effects related to polyalkylimide implants (PAIs).
Prospective case series of patients injected with PAIs.
A university tertiary teaching hospital.
A prospectively acquired series of 25 patients with severe and/or persistent delayed adverse effects after PAI injection. The patients underwent clinical follow-up, a battery of blood tests, and when possible, biopsy and chest radiography.
Clinical evaluation of granulomas, skin manifestations, and other local and systemic immune-mediated disorders possibly related to PAIs.
The average latency period for onset of symptoms was 13.4 months. Eight patients were previously injected with another implant. Tender inflammatory nodules were seen in 24 patients. Systemic or distant manifestations appeared in 6 cases. Laboratory abnormalities were found in 20 cases. After an average of 21.3 months of follow-up, 11 patients appeared to be free of adverse effects, and 10 still had recurrent bouts.
Although infrequent, delayed and recurrent chronic inflammatory and granulomatous reactions may complicate PAI fillers.
Skin appearance is a primary indicator of age. During the last decade, substantial progress has been made toward understanding underlying mechanisms of human skin aging. This understanding provides the basis for current use and new development of antiaging treatments. Our objective is to review present state-of-the-art knowledge pertaining to mechanisms involved in skin aging, with specific focus on the dermal collagen matrix. A major feature of aged skin is fragmentation of the dermal collagen matrix. Fragmentation results from actions of specific enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases) and impairs the structural integrity of the dermis. Fibroblasts that produce and organize the collagen matrix cannot attach to fragmented collagen. Loss of attachment prevents fibroblasts from receiving mechanical information from their support, and they collapse. Stretch is critical for normal balanced production of collagen and collagen-degrading enzymes. In aged skin, collapsed fibroblasts produce low levels of collagen and high levels of collagen-degrading enzymes. This imbalance advances the aging process in a self-perpetuating, never-ending deleterious cycle. Clinically proven antiaging treatments such as topical retinoic acid, carbon dioxide laser resurfacing, and intradermal injection of cross-linked hyaluronic acid stimulate production of new, undamaged collagen. Attachment of fibroblasts to this new collagen allows stretch, which in turn balances collagen production and degradation and thereby slows the aging process. Collagen fragmentation is responsible for loss of structural integrity and impairment of fibroblast function in aged human skin. Treatments that stimulate production of new, nonfragmented collagen should provide substantial improvement to the appearance and health of aged skin.
Abstracts: In Other Archives Journals. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2009;11(1):66-67. doi: