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Gallstone disease causes a substantial health and economic burden in the United States and other developed countries. More than 6 million men and 14 million women aged 20 to 74 years in the United States have gallbladder disease.1 Approximately 650 000 to 700 000 cholecystectomies are performed annually in the United States, and the costs associated with the symptoms and complications of gallstones are estimated to be $6.5 billion per year.2 Known risk factors for gallbladder disease include obesity, recent weight loss, age, hormone use, parity, lack of exercise, and alcohol use.
Katz MH. Bilirubin, Gallstones, and Mendelian Randomization. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(13):1229. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.6568