Three patients with renal failure caused by atheroembolism following cardiac vascular procedures had multiple, bilateral retinal cholesterol emboli. Ophthalmoscopy in such patients represents a noninvasive diagnostic technique that is underutilized.
Gittinger JW, Kershaw GR. Retinal Cholesterol Emboli in the Diagnosis of Renal Atheroembolism. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(11):1265-1267. doi:10.1001/archinte.158.11.1265