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Special Article
March 10, 2003

Management of High Blood Pressure in African AmericansConsensus Statement of the Hypertension in African Americans Working Group of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks

Author Affiliations

From Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (Dr Douglas); Rush Presbyterian-St Luke's Medical Center, Chicago, Ill(Dr Bakris); University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Fla (Dr Epstein);Heartbeats Life Center, New Orleans, La (Dr Ferdinand); The Hypertension and Vascular Disease Center of Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (Dr Ferrario); Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Mich(Dr Flack); University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor (Dr Jamerson); South Texas Veterans Health System, San Antonio (Dr Jones); University of Southern California Medical Center, Los Angeles (Dr Haywood); National Medical Association Board of Trustees, Los Angeles, Calif (Dr Maxey); Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Ga (Dr Ofili); University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (Dr Saunders); Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Dr Schiffrin); Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (Dr Sica); State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn (Dr Sowers); and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (Dr Vidt). The authors have no relevant financial interest in this article.

Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(5):525-541. doi:10.1001/archinte.163.5.525

The purpose of this consensus statement is to offer primary care providers (including physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) a practical, evidence-based clinical tool for achieving blood pressure goals in African American patients. The need for specific recommendations for African Americans is highlighted by compelling evidence of a higher prevalence of hypertension and poorer cardiovascular and renal outcomes in this group than in white Americans. African Americans have disturbingly higher rates of cardiovascular mortality, stroke, hypertension-related heart disease, congestive heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertensive nephropathy, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD).1,2

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