The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy represents a significant advance in medical care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. However, not everyone has derived the expected benefits of antiretroviral therapy and HIV-associated diseases such as nephropathy still occur in at-risk populations. Currently, there are no recommendations for screening HIV-positive patients for HIV-associated nephropathy. We propose semiannual screening for proteinuria in HIV-positive African Americans and patients with a family history of renal disease, and provide an algorithm for evaluation.
Olatinwo T, Hewitt RG, Venuto RC. Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Associated NephropathyA Primary Care Perspective. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(3):333-336. doi:10.1001/archinte.164.3.333