In the experiments herein described, data were obtained concerning the influence of morphine and ether, separately and together, on the function of the kidneys, that is, on the rate and composition of the urine secreted. It has been known for a long time that anesthesia diminishes the volume of urine secreted, and data exist also concerning the effect of anesthetics on metabolism in general, as represented by the composition of the urine, but we were unable to find a detailed study of the effects of anesthesia on the function of the kidneys.
In order to eliminate all extraneous influences in the experiments, such as operative procedures, dogs with fistulas in the bladder were employed. The bladder was largely excised and the cut margin sewed into the skin. Healing required about a week, after which the animal was placed on a table with the opening in the fistula over a
STEHLE RL, BOURNE W. THE EFFECTS OF MORPHINE AND ETHER ON THE FUNCTION OF THE KIDNEYS. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1928;42(2):248-255. doi:10.1001/archinte.1928.00130200100006