Lyon, Shafton and Ivy1 found that it was possible to produce edema in bilaterally nephrectomized dogs and at the same time to prolong the life of such animals by the subcutaneous administration of Ringer's solution. It was observed that on the second or third day vomiting and diarrhea resulted, which led to dehydration and hypochloremia. The Ringer's solution relieved this condition and presented water and chlorides for the formation of edematous fluid.
The following questions naturally arose from this work: Which was most important in the production of the edema, water or chlorides? Was the edema, possibly by acting to dilute "toxins," responsible for the prolongation of life, or was the prolongation of life due simply to the relief of the dehydration and hypochloremia? We desired to answer these questions and believed that the water factor could be controlled by the use of a solution of dextrose instead of
BARRY FS, SHAFTON AL, IVY AC. EXPERIMENTAL EDEMA IN NEPHRECTOMIZED DOGSII. THE ROLE OF WATER AND CHLORIDES. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1933;51(2):200–206. doi:10.1001/archinte.1933.00150210030003