February 1963

Spatial Vectorcardiography

Author Affiliations

By Hugon and Zofia Kowarzykowie. Price, not given. Pp. 254, with 288 illustrations. Pergamon Press, Inc., 122 E. 55th St., New York 22, 1961.

Arch Intern Med. 1963;111(2):271-272. doi:10.1001/archinte.1963.03620260131031

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Essentially the book is an atlas in which are shown the stereovectorcardiograms (Scg), the electrocardiograms, and the axonocardiograms (Acg) of a group of normal and abnormal subjects. The axonocardiograms (spatial and planar) are made by a mechanical drafting device, described in detail, using the "orthogonal" leads of the "parallelepiped," or of the "cube," or of both for comparison. All stereovectorcardiograms were made with a CR tube utilizing the cube reference frame. The instrument itself, designed by Kwoczynski, Keller, and Ekiel, apparently has incorporated in it characteristics of a resolver and of a differential vectorcardiograph.

The authors have an interesting coding and graphing system for the spatial and planar axonocardiograms based on the direction of rotation of each (levodromic, or counter-clockwise, and dextrodromic, or clockwise) and the side of the spatial loop as seen by an observer stationed at the planes. The latter gives, in a gross way, the tilt of

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