Sixty-seven patients with a pulmonary hemorrhage of more than 600 ml within 48 hours were studied. Mortality was primarily related to the rate of bleeding and exceeded 75% when the patient bled more than 600 ml within 16 hours. Surgical intervention in patients bleeding at this rate was associated with a mortality of 23%. Age of patient and extent of underlying pulmonary disease did not influence survival. These results emphasize the dangers inherent in overreliance on conservative management. Early surgery whenever possible is advocated.
Crocco JA, Rooney JJ, Fankushen DS, DiBenedetto RJ, Lyons HA. MASSIVE HEMOPTYSIS. Arch Intern Med. 1968;121(6):495-498. doi:10.1001/archinte.1968.03640060009002