The effects of insulin on hepatic glucose balance, including data on hepatic glucose output, production (glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis), and uptake in normal and diabetic animals are reviewed. Data from in vivo studies are presented which indicate that these changes in the hepatic handling of glucose following insulin administration are direct effects of insulin on the liver rather than effects secondary to insulin's action on muscle and adipose tissue. These studies indicate that these hepatic actions of insulin are vital to the organism both during feasting and prolonged fasting.
Madison LL. Role of Insulin in the Hepatic Handling of Glucose. Arch Intern Med. 1969;123(3):284-292. doi:10.1001/archinte.1969.00300130066010