We attempted to reproduce both in vivo and in vitro some of the abnormalities of calcium, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism known to occur in uremia. Preliminary results showed impaired intestinal absorption of calcium and plasma lipid abnormalities similar to those found in human uremia in dogs following long-term intoxication with methylguanidine. Abnormal results of intravenous glucose tolerance tests were observed in dogs intoxicated with urea, and the in vitro utilization of glucose by red blood cells was found to be inhibited by urea and creatinine.
Balestri PL, Biagini M, Rindi P, Giovannetti S. Uremic Toxins. Arch Intern Med. 1970;126(5):843-845. doi:10.1001/archinte.1970.00310110113019