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Blood grouping tests are now being used routinely in medicolegal cases of disputed parentage in courts throughout the world. As more and more blood group systems are discovered, and with the introduction of serum grouping tests and tests for serum and red blood cell isozymes, the chances of excluding paternity for a man who has been falsely accused have increased progressively over the past two decades. This has led to the suggestion that such tests now be used not merely as proof of nonpaternity but also as circumstantial evidence of actual paternity. For example, if the tests used are such that 95% of men falsely accused of paternity could be excluded, then when the tests fail to exclude the defendant in a paternity action, it could be considered circumstantial evidence that the accused man actually is the father, with a likelihood as great as 95%. In fact, it has recently
Wiener AS. Biostatistical Opinion on Parentage: Based Upon the Results of Group Tests.. Arch Intern Med. 1973;131(4):614-615. doi:10.1001/archinte.1973.00320100142038