The performance of the heart is regulated by the level of myocardial contractility and the cardiac preload and afterload. These factors, previously of interest primarily to basic scientists, are now clinically important for an understanding of both cardiac function and therapeutics. In this brief review, the essence of these concepts is summarized and related to the treatment of cardiac failure.
(Arch Intern Med 1982;142:819-822)
Little RC, Little WC. Cardiac Preload, Afterload, and Heart Failure. Arch Intern Med. 1982;142(4):819-822. doi:10.1001/archinte.1982.00340170179027