To the Editor.
—Leishmania infantum is the agent of an endemic anthropozoonosis in the Alpes-Maritimes department of France.1 We report two cases of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis with anti—human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) antibodies; at least one of the patients has acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Report of Cases.
—A 39-year-old homosexual man was admitted for fever, diarrhea, and weight loss. He showed multiple enlarged lymph nodes and splenomegaly. Laboratory studies were as follows: white blood cell count, 3.3×10109/L (3300/mm3); lymphocytes, 0.45×10109/L (450/mm3); hemoglobin, 5.9 mmol/L (5.9 g/dL); platelet count, 75×10109/L (75/mm3); gammaglobulin, 35 g/L (3.5 g/dL); anti-HIV antibodies, positive (enzymelinked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], Pasteur Institute, and Western blot); and T4 cell count, 0.04× 109/L (4/mm3). Salmonella enteritidis was found in blood cultures, and Pneumocystis carinii was found in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. Improvement was obtained with
Fuzibet JG, Marty P, Taillan B, Bertrand F, Pras P, Pesce A, LeFichoux Y, Dujarin P. Is Leishmania Infantum an Opportunistic Parasite in Patients With Anti—Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibodies?. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148(5):1228. doi:10.1001/archinte.1988.00380050232032