• Painful involuntary skeletal muscle contractions, or cramps, are common patient complaints and may be classified as examples of true cramp, tetany, contracture, or dystonia. The pathophysiologic and clinical features of each of these diagnoses are described. The approach to the patient with cramps should emphasize the history, physical examination, and, if the diagnosis is unclear, minimal routine laboratory data. Although many therapies have been proposed for ordinary cramps, the best evidence supports stretching exercises and quinine. Areas for future study of this common symptom are proposed.
(Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:511-518)
McGee SR. Muscle Cramps. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150(3):511-518. doi:10.1001/archinte.1990.00390150025005