When we consider the medical history of Panama with reference to the origin of its population, the negroes from Africa and possibly the Pacific Islands, Chinese, introduced by the French Canal Company ; Coolies, Sikhs and Bengalis from India, besides those representatives of the Caucasian race who have come from every portion of the tropical and subtropical world, Americans from the Philippines, various globe-trotters and "tropical tramps," we naturally expect to encounter here some of the diseases especially characteristic of other lands, and we are not surprised to find that echinococcus infections are confined strictly to Spanish laborers. Infection by Taenia nana and T. saginata occurs among Europeans and Americans. Bilharziosis comes almost exclusively from the French West India Islands, Filaria demarquai in negroes from St. Vincent, Old World hookworms, A. duodenale, among the West Indians, possibly introduced there by coolies. Trichinosis has been detected only among the Spanish (from Spain).
DARLING ST. OBSERVATIONS ON THE CYSTS OF ENTAMOEBA TETRAGENA. Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1913;XI(1):1-14. doi:10.1001/archinte.1913.00060250004001