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Article
July 1918

THE CLINICAL REGISTRATION OF CARDIAC MURMURS BY THE DIRECT METHOD

Author Affiliations

NEW YORK

From the Physiological Laboratory, Cornell University Medical College, and the Second Medical Division, Bellevue Hospital.

Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1918;XXII(1):28-40. doi:10.1001/archinte.1918.00090120033003
Abstract

I. INTRODUCTION  The need of a simple yet efficient device for recording heart sounds, in conjunction with pulse tracings and electrocardiograms, caused Dean and the writer to experiment extensively with various forms of apparatus designed to record heart sounds directly. This experimental work, together with a careful study of published records, convinced us that at the time no so-called "direct method" of sound registration was satisfactory for clinical use. Further experimentation then led us to modify the Frank segment capsule so as to render it more sensitive and protected from extraneous sounds.1 A mechanical diagram of the apparatus, as improved in minor details, is drawn to scale in Figure 1.By this apparatus satisfactory records of normal heart sounds can be obtained provided certain simple principles are followed. The clinical adaptability of these capsules could not be guaranteed, however, until their ability to record cardiac murmurs was established. Such a

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