We read with interest the review article in the ARCHIVES on cardiac manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.1 With several other colleagues, we recently described the clinical features, etiology, prognosis, and outcome in 40 patients at our hospital with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated pericardial effusion.2 Twenty eight (70%) of these patients had small or moderate effusions and 12 (30%) patients had large effusions. Sixteen patients (40%) had cardiac tamponade. In 15 of these 16 patients, pericardiocentesis or pericardiostomy was performed. The causes of cardiac tamponade were Mycobacterium species in 2 patients (19%), Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1 (6%), Staphylococcus aureus in 1 (6%), Kaposi sarcoma in 1 (6%), and unknown in 10 (63%).
Chen Y, Brennessel D, Johnson M, Rosner F. Pericardial Effusion in Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(15):2393. doi: