Author Affiliation: Department Neuropathology, University of Duesseldorf Medical School, Duesseldorf, Germany.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), formerly known as Devic disease, is a relatively rare autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) clinically characterized by prominent, mostly relapsing-remitting symptoms that affect vision and loss of motoric, sensory, or autonomic functions.1 Current diagnostic criteria require the presence of optic neuritis, myelitis, and 2 of the following 3 criteria: (1) evidence of a contiguous spinal cord lesion of 3 or more segments in length by magnetic resonance imaging, (2) the magnetic resonance imaging at disease onset is nondiagnostic for multiple sclerosis (MS), or (3) NMO-IgG seropositivity.2 By convenience, CNS involvement beyond symptoms of optic neuritis and myelitis are compatible with NMO diagnosis. These current diagnostic criteria were 90% specific and 99% sensitive in various populations.
Korth C. Identification of Dominant Human Aquaporin 4 T-Cell EpitopesObservations in Neuromyelitis Optica With Implications for Other Autoimmune Disorders. Arch Neurol. 2012;69(9):1111-1112. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2012.1561