• Rabbit retinas were incubated at 37 C in media lacking oxygen, glucose, or both, or sealed in a small compartment without medium to convert them to a "closed system." They were then returned to control medium before being fixed for microscopy. Other retinas were incubated only in control medium and then fixed. Conversion of the retina to a closed system caused irreversible damage to all cell types within 40 minutes. Combined deprivation of oxygen and glucose also irreversibly damaged the neuronal cells within 40 minutes, but Mueller cells, the principal glial cells of the retina, were not irreversibly altered by 90 minutes of the deprivation. Deprivation of oxygen alone caused irreversible damage to receptor cells in 80 minutes, but the cells of the inner nuclear layer, ganglion cells, and Mueller cells retained normal structure for at least 180 minutes. Deprivation of glucose alone damaged receptor cells in 160 minutes and the other neuronal cells in 180 minutes, but did not irreversibly damage Mueller cells by 200 minutes.
Shay J, Ames A. Retina Subjected to Components of Ischemia In VitroSelective Vulnerability and Minimum Lethal Exposure of Neurons and Glia to Oxygen and/or Glucose Deprivation and to Loss of Exchange With Incubating Medium. Arch Neurol. 1976;33(10):715–721. doi:10.1001/archneur.1976.00500100049015