• Ophthalmoscopic examination of the retinal nerve fiber layer may demonstrate changes associated with a variety of diseases. These alterations are of four general types: slit or rake defects, sector atrophy, diffuse atrophy, and density changes in the nerve fibers themselves. With practice and the use of a bright source of "red-free" light, recognition of these alterations provides a bedside tool for evaluation of the anterior visual pathways.
Newman NM, Tornambe PE, Corbett JJ. Ophthalmoscopy of the Retinal Nerve Fiber LayerUse in Detection of Neurologic Disease. Arch Neurol. 1982;39(4):226-233. doi:10.1001/archneur.1982.00510160032006