Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes 2 distinctive syndromes: varicella (chickenpox), the primary infection, which is usually a benign epidemical illness from childhood that manifests as a generalized pruritic rash, and herpes zoster (shingles), which results from the reactivation of latent VZV within the sensory ganglia and typically manifests as a painful dermatomal eruption (Figure 1).
Nogueira RG, Traynor B. The Neurology of Varicella-Zoster VirusA Historical Perspective. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(12):1974-1977. doi:10.1001/archneur.61.12.1974