Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)–associated dementia complex (HIV dementia) occurs in 10% to 15% of HIV-seropositive individuals with advanced infection and is characterized by cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction. The clinical phenotype of HIV dementia has changed as a result of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) so that mild forms of HIV-associated cognitive impairment predominate, and there is evidence of lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV RNA levels and less central nervous system (CNS) immune activation.1 Many surrogate markers from the pre-HAART era are no longer associated with HIV dementia, suggesting an attenuated CNS inflammatory response in HIV-positive individuals receiving HAART. There is an urgent need to identify new surrogate laboratory and neuroimaging markers of HIV-associated cognitive impairment in the era of HAART.
Pomper MG, Sacktor N. New Techniques for Imaging Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Associated Cognitive Impairment in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Arch Neurol. 2007;64(9):1233-1235. doi:10.1001/archneur.64.9.1233