Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has changed dramatically since the advent of AIDS, most notably through the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). With the introduction of HAART came remarkable changes in life expectancy of people living with AIDS, declines in the incidence of opportunistic infections, and conversion of HIV infection from a death sentence to a chronic illness. Despite treatment advances, cognitive disorders have continued to affect a large percentage of people living with AIDS, adversely affecting their lives and frustrating their loved ones and health care providers.
HIV and the Brain: New Challenges in the Modern Era. Arch Neurol. 2009;66(12):1578-1579. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2009.257