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Figure 1.
Sagittal (A and B), coronal (C and D), and transaxial (E and F) magnetic resonance images demonstrating the localization of the volume of interest (VOI). Proton magnetic resonance spectra were acquired from the brainstem in a cubic VOI of 18 × 20 × 26 mm (A, C, and E). The motor area VOI measured 40 × 30 × 25 mm and was placed anterior to the central sulcus in the motor cortex and subjacent white matter (B, D, and F).

Sagittal (A and B), coronal (C and D), and transaxial (E and F) magnetic resonance images demonstrating the localization of the volume of interest (VOI). Proton magnetic resonance spectra were acquired from the brainstem in a cubic VOI of 18 × 20 × 26 mm (A, C, and E). The motor area VOI measured 40 × 30 × 25 mm and was placed anterior to the central sulcus in the motor cortex and subjacent white matter (B, D, and F).

Figure 2.
Comparison of localized proton magnetic resonance spectra from a patient with Kennedy disease and a healthy volunteer. Long echo time spectra from a patient with Kennedy disease with data acquisition in the brainstem (A) and the motor area (C). Long echo time spectra from a control with data acquisition in the brainstem (B) and the motor region (D). Cho indicates choline compounds; Cr, phosphocreatine; and NA, N-acetyl-groups.

Comparison of localized proton magnetic resonance spectra from a patient with Kennedy disease and a healthy volunteer. Long echo time spectra from a patient with Kennedy disease with data acquisition in the brainstem (A) and the motor area (C). Long echo time spectra from a control with data acquisition in the brainstem (B) and the motor region (D). Cho indicates choline compounds; Cr, phosphocreatine; and NA, N-acetyl-groups.

Figure 3.
Scatter plots of N-acetyl group–choline compound (NA/Cho) ratios (A), NA-phosphocreatine (Cr) ratios (B), and Cho/Cr ratios (C) for patients with Kennedy disease (KD) and control subjects with data acquisition from the motor area and the brainstem. Solid circles indicate metabolite ratios of the 2 brothers of family A and the proband of family C, who showed the lowest NA/Cho ratios in the motor region.

Scatter plots of N-acetyl group–choline compound (NA/Cho) ratios (A), NA-phosphocreatine (Cr) ratios (B), and Cho/Cr ratios (C) for patients with Kennedy disease (KD) and control subjects with data acquisition from the motor area and the brainstem. Solid circles indicate metabolite ratios of the 2 brothers of family A and the proband of family C, who showed the lowest NA/Cho ratios in the motor region.

Table 1. 
Clinical Data on Patients With Kennedy Disease*
Clinical Data on Patients With Kennedy Disease*
Table 2. 
Metabolite Ratios for Patients With Kennedy Disease and Controls*
Metabolite Ratios for Patients With Kennedy Disease and Controls*
1.
La Spada  AWilson  EMLubahn  DBHarding  AEFischbeck  KH Androgen receptor gene mutations in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Nature. 1991;35277- 79Article
2.
Kennedy  WRAlter  MSung  JH Progressive proximal spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy of late onset: a sex-linked recessive trait. Neurology. 1968;18671- 680Article
3.
Fischbeck  KH Kennedy disease. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1997;20152- 158Article
4.
Burke  JREnghild  JJMartin  ME  et al.  Huntingtin and DRPLA proteins selectively interact with the enzyme GADPH. Nature Med. 1996;2347- 350Article
5.
Koshy  BMatilla  TBurright  EN  et al.  Spinocerebellar ataxia type-1 and spinobulbar muscular atrophy gene products interact with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Hum Mol Genet. 1996;51311- 1318Article
6.
Harms  LMeierkord  HTimm  GPfeiffer  LLudolph  AC Decreased N-acetyl-aspartate/choline ratio and increased lactate in the frontal lobe of patients with Huntington's disease: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1997;6227- 30Article
7.
Koroshetz  WJJenkins  BGRosen  BRBeal  MF Energy metabolism defects in Huntington's disease and effects of coenzyme Q10Ann Neurol. 1997;41160- 165Article
8.
Block  WKaritzky  JTräber  F  et al.  Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the primary motor cortex in patients with motor neuron disease: subgroup analysis and follow-up measurements. Arch Neurol. 1998;55931- 936Article
9.
Cwik  VAHanstock  CCAllen  PSMartin  WRW Estimation of brainstem neuronal loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neurology. 1998;5072- 77Article
10.
Simmons  MLFrondoza  CGCoyle  JT Immunocytochemical localization of N-acetyl-aspartate with monoclonal antibodies. Neuroscience. 1991;4537- 45Article
11.
Urenjak  JWilliams  SRGadian  DGNoble  M Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy unambiguously identifies different neural cell types. J Neurosci. 1993;13981- 989
12.
Pavlakis  SGKingsley  PBKaplan  GPStacpole  PWO'Shea  MLustbader  D Magnetic resonance spectroscopy: use in monitoring MELAS treatment. Arch Neurol. 1998;55849- 852Article
13.
Nagashima  TSeko  KHirose  K  et al.  Familial bulbo-spinal muscular atrophy associated with testicular atrophy and sensory neuropathy (Kennedy-Alter-Sung syndrome): autopsy case report of two brothers. J Neurol Sci. 1988;87141- 152Article
14.
Sobue  GHashizume  YMakai  EHirayama  MMitsuma  TTakahashi  A X-linked recessive bulbospinal neuronopathy: a clinicopathological study. Brain. 1989;112209- 232Article
15.
Li  MMiwa  SKobayashi  Y  et al.  Nuclear inclusions of the androgen receptor protein in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Ann Neurol. 1998;44249- 254Article
16.
Shaw  PJThagesen  HTomkins  J  et al.  Kennedy's disease: unusual molecular pathologic and clinical features. Neurology. 1998;51252- 255Article
17.
Masaharu  MKakimoto  YSorimachi  M A gas chromatographic method for the determination of N-acetyl-aspartic acid, N-acetyl-aspartylglutamic acid and citryl-L-glutamic acid and their distributions in the brain and other organs of various species of animals. J Neurochem. 1981;36804- 810Article
18.
Koller  KJZaczek  RCoyle  JT N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate: regional levels in rat brain and the effect of brain lesions as determined by a new HPLC method. J Neurochem. 1984;431136- 1142Article
19.
Meyerhoff  DJMacKay  SConstans  JM  et al.  Axonal injury and membrane alterations in Alzheimer's disease suggested by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Ann Neurol. 1994;3640- 47Article
20.
Paulson  GWLiss  LSweeney  PJ Late onset spinal mucle atrophy: a sex-linked variant of Kugelberg-Welander. Acta Neurol Scand. 1980;6149- 55Article
21.
Furtado  SSucherowsky  ORewcastle  BGraham  LKlimek  MLGarber  A Relationship between trinucleotide repeats and neuropathological changes in Huntington's disease. Ann Neurol. 1996;39132- 136Article
22.
Penney  JBVonsattel  JPMacDonald  MEGusella  JFMyers  RH CAG repeat number governs the development rate of pathology in Huntington's disease. Ann Neurol. 1997;41689- 692Article
23.
Antonini  ALeenders  KLEidelberg  D [11C]Raclopride-PET studies of the Huntington's disease rate of progression: relevance of the trinucleotide repeat length. Ann Neurol. 1998;43253- 255Article
24.
Doyu  MSobue  GMukai  E  et al.  Severity of X-linked recessive bulbospinal neuronopathy correlates with size of the tandem CAG repeat in androgen receptor gene. Ann Neurol. 1992;32707- 710Article
25.
Igarashi  STanno  YOnodera  O  et al.  Strong correlation between the number of CAG repeats in androgen receptor genes and the clinical onset of features of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Neurology. 1992;422300- 2302Article
26.
Amato  AAPrior  TWBarohn  RJSnyder  BSPapp  AMendell  JR Kennedy's disease: a clinicopathologic correlation with mutations in the androgen receptor gene. Neurology. 1993;43791- 794Article
27.
Shimada  NSobue  GDoyu  M  et al.  X-linked recessive bulbospinal neuronopathy: clinical phenotypes and CAG repeat size in the androgen receptor gene. Muscle Nerve. 1995;181378- 1384Article
Original Contribution
December 1999

Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Kennedy Syndrome

Author Affiliations

From the Departments of Neurology, University of Ulm, Ulm (Drs Karitzky, Sperfeld, and Ludolph), Radiology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Drs Block, Träber, and Schild), and Neurology, Städt. Kliniken, Osnabrück (Drs Mellies and Haller), Germany.

Arch Neurol. 1999;56(12):1465-1471. doi:10.1001/archneur.56.12.1465
Abstract

Objective  To seek regional metabolite abnormalities in patients with Kennedy disease (KD) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Design  Nine patients with KD showing the typical phenotype without clinical signs of upper motor neuron involvement were compared with 17 male, age-matched, healthy control subjects. Relative metabolite concentrations for N-acetyl (NA) groups, choline-containing groups (Cho), phosphocreatine (Cr), and lactate (Lac) were determined in the brainstem and the motor region.

Results  Pathologic Lac signals suggesting impaired energy metabolism were absent in patients and controls. In the brainstem area, patients with KD showed a significant reduction in the NA/Cho metabolite ratio (P = .01). In the motor region, NA/Cho (P = .04) and NA/Cr (P = .03) ratios were significantly reduced. The reduction of the NA/Cho ratio in the motor region mainly resulted from decreased metabolite ratios in 3 patients. Changes in metabolite ratios did not correlate with the number of trinucleotide cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats from leukocytes. Because of the relatively small sample size due to the rarity of KD, these results should be considered preliminary.

Conclusions  Spectroscopic data fail to provide further evidence for altered energy metabolism in KD. Metabolite changes in the brainstem indicate a reduction of the neuronal marker NA or elevated Cho. These findings may reflect neuronal loss or gliosis consistent with the known pathologic features. In a subset of patients, altered metabolite ratios best explained by neuronal loss suggest subclinical involvement of the motor region. The extent of metabolite changes does not correlate with the trinucleotide repeat length.

KENNEDY DISEASE (KD), or X-linked spinobulbar muscular atrophy, is a motor neuronopathy caused by an expansion of a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat motif in the androgen receptor gene.1 The clinical picture of KD is distinctive. In their article published 30 years ago, Kennedy and coworkers2 described the typical phenotype and the X-linked recessive pattern of inheritance. Clinical signs include weakness of the limbs, mainly with proximal distribution, and bulbar symptoms with prominent weakness and fasciculation of the facial muscles and tongue. Additional symptoms are gynecomastia, postural tremor, and diabetes in some patients. The disease typically manifests in the third to fifth decade of life. Although similarities of KD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) do exist, there are no clinical findings suggesting upper motor neuron involvement in KD.

The pathomechanism leading to neuronal death in KD is unknown, but probably involves the toxicity of the expanded polyglutamine tract in the androgen receptor protein.3 Pathologic protein to protein interactions with subsequent impairment of oxidative energy metabolism may be a common pathway in neuronal degeneration in CAG-repeat diseases.4,5 In Huntington disease, the hypothesis of impaired energy metabolism is further supported by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies demonstrating increased lactate (Lac) in different brain regions.6,7 As shown in ALS, proton spectroscopy provides an efficient tool to assess neuronal loss both in the primary motor cortex and the brainstem.8,9

Noninvasive 1H-MRS offers the opportunity to investigate changes in the metabolite composition of different brain regions. Proton metabolites detectable using this method with long echo times (TEs) of 272 milliseconds are N-acetyl (NA) groups, phosphocreatine (Cr), choline (Cho), and lactate (Lac). Since NA groups are confined to neurons and Cr is distributed relatively evenly through all cells,10,11 a reduction in the NA/Cr metabolic ratio can be explained by a reduction in levels of neuronal NA due to the degenerative process. Lactate is detectable in the brain in pathologic states associated with impaired oxidative energy metabolism such as in mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.12

In this study, we analyzed the relative resonance intensities of NA, Cr, Cho, and Lac in the brainstem and primary motor cortex of patients with Kennedy syndrome. The aim was to investigate whether 1H-MRS is suitable to detect altered metabolite ratios reflecting neuronal dysfunction and/or pathologic Lac peaks indicating impaired energy metabolism. We have studied the brainstem because bulbar symptoms occur early in the clinical course of spinobulbar muscular atrophy, and overt neuronal loss has been shown by neuropathologic studies in this region. As a control region we investigated the motor cortex. This region is thought not to be involved in KD as reported in most clinical and neuropathologic studies,2,1315 but recently, subtle corticospinal tract abnormalities have been reported in 2 KD cases.16

SUBJECTS AND METHODS
SUBJECTS

Nine male patients with KD from 6 separate kinships, including 1 sporadic case, were studied. All patients showed the typical clinical phenotype with bulbar symptoms including tongue atrophy and fasciculations. Muscular weakness and atrophy of limb muscles were present in most cases. Some patients showed additional clinical features such as gynecomastia, postural tremor, and diabetes. Clinical signs of upper motor neuron (UMN) involvement were absent. Diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by genetic testing. Clinical data are given in Table 1. There was a family history of neurodegenerative disease in family A and in the isolated case. The mothers of the probands—both obligate carriers for the disease gene—developed senile dementia in their seventh and eighth decades. The control group included 17 healthy male volunteers without any known personal history of neurodegenerative disease. The mean (SD) age of the KD group (48.1 [6.0] years) did not significantly differ from that of healthy controls (48.1 [16.7] years, P = .95). Spectroscopic data of all patients and controls are listed in Table 2. All participants provided informed consent to the study protocol.

MAGNETIC RESONANCE EXAMINATIONS

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5-T, whole-body MRI system (Gyroscan ACS-NT; Philips Medical Systems, Best, the Netherlands) using a head coil suited for MRI and 1H-MRS. Coronal T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequences with repetition time (TR)/echo time (TE) of 2700/120 milliseconds, transaxial proton density and T2-weighted spin echo sequences with TR/TE1 and TR/TE2 of 2500/20 and 90 milliseconds, respectively, and multistack T1-weighted spin echo sequences with TR/TE 300/15 milliseconds were obtained for image-guided localization of the spectroscopic volume of interest (VOI). A cubic VOI of 18 × 20 × 26 mm was placed in the brainstem (pons and upper medulla), and another VOI of 40 × 30 × 25 mm was placed anterior to the central sulcus in the motor cortex and subjacent white matter (Figure 1). Proton magnetic resonance spectra were acquired with point-resolved spectroscopy volume selection and water suppression. With a TR/TE of 2000/272 milliseconds and 128-signal averages, the acquisition of each spectrum took approximately 4 minutes. Analysis of the spectra was performed with the manufacturer-supplied spectroscopy software package of the MRI system. Relative metabolite concentrations for NA, Cho, Cr, and Lac were determined by fitting the resonance line shape of each metabolite to a Lorentz curve before ascertaining the peak integral. In all patients with KD, 1H-MRS was performed in the motor region of both hemispheres; spectra of the brainstem could not be quantified in 1 patient. In the control group, spectroscopic data were available for the motor area in all volunteers. Data acquisition for the brainstem VOI was performed in 9 controls.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

Descriptive analyses were performed on NA/Cho, NA/Cr, and Cho/Cr metabolite ratios. Statistical comparison of the relative metabolite ratios in KD and controls was carried out using the Mann-Whitney U test. We chose a conservative statistical analysis using a nonparametric test because of the small sample size and because there are no data showing the normality of the distribution of metabolite ratios in a larger group of patients and controls. Correlations between age at onset (determined by age at first occurence of limb weakness or tremor, if limb weakness was absent), disease duration, CAG repeat length, and 1H-MRS ratios were determined using Pearson product moment correlation.

RESULTS

Proton magnetic resonance spectra were obtained from 8 brainstem regions and 18 motor regions of 9 patients with KD. The results were compared with data obtained from 17 healthy volunteers. Spectroscopic data were available for the motor region in all controls, but data acquisition for the brainstem was performed only in 9 controls. Figure 2 shows a set of 1H-MR spectra acquired with TE 272 milliseconds in the brainstem and the motor region comparing exemplary results from a patient with KD and a healthy volunteer. These spectra show 3 peaks corresponding to NA, Cho, and Cr. Metabolic ratios of NA/Cho, NA/Cr, Cho/Cr in KD compared with healthy controls are listed in Table 2.

In patients with KD and in normal controls, there were no pathologic Lac peaks. Patients with KD showed a significant reduction in the mean NA/Cho ratios in the brainstem (P = .01). The Cho/Cr and NA/Cr ratios did not differ significantly from those of the control group (P = .61 and .14, respectively). In the motor region of patients with KD there was a significant reduction of mean NA/Cho and NA/Cr ratios (P = .04 and .03, respectively), while Cho/Cr ratios did not differ from those of the control group (P = .48). Figure 3 shows graphically the ratios for the 3 metabolites in individual patients and controls for the brainstem and the motor region. For the NA/Cho ratio, the difference in the motor cortex seemed to result from very low ratios in 6 motor regions of 3 patients with KD. The corresponding spectra were acquired in the 2 brothers of family A and the proband of family C (Table 1). In these patients, spectrocopy findings revealed low values for NA/Cho ratios in the brainstem (Figure 3). There were high values for Cho/Cr ratios both in the motor region and brainstem, but mean Cho/Cr ratios did not differ from the controls. Clinical phenotype was not different from other patients with KD except for the occurrence of diabetes mellitus in the 2 brothers. There were markedly expanded CAG repeats (52 repeats) in the brothers, but the proband of family C showed only a moderate expansion (40 repeats).

The correlations between age at onset, disease duration, CAG repeat length, and metabolite ratios both of the brainstem and the motor region were not significant in the group of patients with KD (data not shown). There was an inverse correlation between age at onset and CAG repeat length (P = .03; r = −0.72).

COMMENT

To assess metabolic changes in brain metabolism in patients with KD, 1H-MRS of the brainstem and the motor cortex was performed. In this study, we detected no pathologic Lac peaks in cases of KD, and our data failed to provide further evidence for an impaired energy metabolism in KD, a mechanism that may be involved in CAG repeat diseases.

The results demonstrate a significant reduction in NA/Cho ratios in the brainstem of patients with KD compared with healthy controls (P = .01). Since the Cho/Cr ratio is unchanged, these data suggest a decrease in the NA signal, which in water-suppressed proton spectra consists of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-acetyl-aspartylglutamate (NAAG). Using long TEs as in our study, the signals of NAA and NAAG cannot be distinguished; both contribute to the NA signal. With data acquisition in the cortex, NA signal mainly results from NAA because the concentration of NAAG is only about 10% that of NAA. In the brainstem, their relative proportions are inverse.17,18 Since immunocytochemical studies have shown that these NA metabolites are localized in neurons and their processes,10 reduced NA levels in spectroscopic studies suggest neuronal loss or dysfunction.

In ALS, previous studies using 1H-MRS provided evidence of an altered pattern of metabolites in the cerebral cortex and brainstem.8,9 The hallmark of ALS is the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The reports on decreased NA/Cr and NA/Cho ratios suggest that 1H-MRS is a promising tool to quantify region-specific neuronal loss or dysfunction. Our finding of altered metabolite ratios in the brainstem of patients with KD can be explained by reduced NA concentrations reflecting neuronal impairment. Degeneration of nuclei of cranial nerves V, VII, and XII, along with degeneration of anterior horn cells and accompanying astrocytosis, has been described in autopsy studies.2,1315 The spectroscopic findings of reduced brainstem NA correlate with the known pathology of KD.

We cannot exclude the possibility that the decrease in the NA/Cho ratio is in part related to an accompanying increase in choline-containing compounds in some patients. Although mean Cho/Cr ratios are not different in KD, there are some patients with high Cho/Cr ratios in the brainstem, as shown in Figure 3. Elevation of Cho levels have been described in 1H-MRS studies in ALS and Alzheimer disease.8,19 This finding is commonly explained by membrane damage or by glial proliferation. Reactive gliosis in the brainstem motor nuclei is a well-known pathologic feature in KD.13 Additionally, there are reports on changes in the myelinated pathways in the brainstem20 and on macrophage permeation of the pyramidal tracts in the medulla.16

In Huntington disease, neuropathologic studies have shown a correlation between the CAG repeat number and extent of postmortem pathologic features.21,22 Imaging studies in Huntington disease using positron emission tomography document this correlation between the number of repeat motifs and the extent of pathologic findings in vivo.23 In KD there is some debate whether repeat length influences clinical phenotype, as indicated by controversial findings regarding the correlation between CAG repeat number and onset of muscle weakness.2426 We found an inverse correlation between CAG number and age at onset. Correlation analysis revealed no linear relation between CAG repeat length, age at onset, disease duration, and metabolite ratios. One possible explanation for this result is the small sample of patients and the fact that they were not selected specifically for anticipated brainstem pathologic features.

The finding of a significant decrease of mean NA/Cho and NA/Cr ratios in the motor region of the KD group deserves further consideration. No patient showed clinical signs of upper motor neuron involvement such as spasticity or exaggerated deep tendon reflexes. Clinical signs of upper motor neuron involvement have not been reported in KD except in 1 report of a family with hyperactive tendon jerks and extensor plantar responses otherwise resembling KD.20 Postmortem examination of 1 affected member of this family showed mild changes in the myelinated pathways in the brainstem. Apart from a recent report of Shaw and coworkers,16 the published autopsy studies report no involvement of the cortex and corticospinal tracts in KD.1315 One of the 2 autopsied patients described by Shaw and coworkers had developed presenile dementia. Pathologic examination revealed neuronal loss and gliosis in the hippocampus and in the prefrontal subcortical white matter. Subtle corticospinal tract involvement was identified by immunocytochemical studies in both of these patients. Clinical signs of upper motor neuron involvement were absent on clinical examination in both cases.

In our spectroscopic study, the reduction of mean ratios in the motor cortex of the patient group is due to very low NA/Cho ratios in 2 brothers of family A and the proband of family C, as shown in Figure 3. N-acetyl–Cho ratios in these patients of 1.6 to 2.0 have not been found in the control group and fall below the lower 99% confidence intervals of controls. These patients had the highest Cho/Cr ratios of the KD group, exceeding the upper margin of 99% confidence intervals of controls. The finding of a decrease in NA/Cho ratios may be due to reduced NA and/or elevated Cho levels. Because the mean NA/Cr ratio is statistically significantly reduced in the motor region of patients with KD, a decrease in NA is probable. The finding of high Cho/Cr ratios in the 3 patients may indicate an additional elevation of the Choline signal. A release of Cho phosphoglycerides, which are constituents of membrane lipids and myelin lipids, may contribute to a stronger Cho signal. Another possible reason for elevated Cho levels is an increase in cell membrane material due to reactive gliosis. Our spectroscopic findings may reflect neuronal dysfunction and gliosis in the motor cortex and adjacent white matter. We suggest subclinical involvement of the motor region in a subset of patients with KD. Our 1H-MRS data complement the recent autopsy results of Shaw and coworkers.16

The pathomechanism leading to the postulated motor area involvement in some KD cases is unclear. Both brothers of family A showed a marked expansion of CAG repeats (52 triplets), but in the single patient of family C, CAG repeat length was only slightly expanded (40 triplets), and there is no correlation between repeat length and 1H-MRS data in the whole group. The clinical phenotype of these patients is similar to the other patients except for the occurrence of diabetes mellitus in the brothers. On neurologic examination, signs of dementia were absent in all patients, but the mother of the 2 brothers, an obligate carrier of the disease gene, suffered from senile dementia. Other environmental or genetic factors contributing to the risk of motor region involvement in KD may exist. One possible factor is the influence of modifying genes. The occurrence of diabetes and the family history of dementia in the brothers could support this hypothesis. In a recent phenotype/genotype study in KD, no correlation between CAG repeat length and the probability of concomitant diabetes mellitus was reported.27 This leads the authors to postulate that factors other than CAG repeat length may influence the phenotype in KD.

The androgen receptor gene is widely expressed in neurons of the frontal and parietal cortex, as shown by immunocytochemical studies.15 One can only speculate that modifying genes may render neurons in regions that are normally not involved in disease pathology, like the motor region, more susceptible to the gene effect of the trinucleotide repeat mutation in KD. This may lead to neuronal degeneration and subsequent development of reactive gliosis.

CONCLUSIONS

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a noninvasive tool to assess metabolic changes in Kennedy syndrome. The lack of a pathologic Lac peak does not provide evidence for impaired energy metabolism in this disease. Alterations in metabolic ratios suggest a reduction in NA, which reflects neuronal loss or dysfunction in the brainstem of patients with Kennedy syndrome. The findings of abnormal ratios in the motor cortex, a region that is clinically not involved, may indicate subclinical involvement of upper motor neurons and reactive gliosis in a subset of patients.

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Article Information

Accepted for publication April 23, 1999.

We wish to thank all the patients and the volunteers for their cooperation in this study. We thank Edith Disput for preparing the photographs.

Reprints: Jochen Karitzky, MD, Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Oberer Eselsberg 45, D-89081 Ulm, Germany (email: jkaritzky@aol.com).

References
1.
La Spada  AWilson  EMLubahn  DBHarding  AEFischbeck  KH Androgen receptor gene mutations in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Nature. 1991;35277- 79Article
2.
Kennedy  WRAlter  MSung  JH Progressive proximal spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy of late onset: a sex-linked recessive trait. Neurology. 1968;18671- 680Article
3.
Fischbeck  KH Kennedy disease. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1997;20152- 158Article
4.
Burke  JREnghild  JJMartin  ME  et al.  Huntingtin and DRPLA proteins selectively interact with the enzyme GADPH. Nature Med. 1996;2347- 350Article
5.
Koshy  BMatilla  TBurright  EN  et al.  Spinocerebellar ataxia type-1 and spinobulbar muscular atrophy gene products interact with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Hum Mol Genet. 1996;51311- 1318Article
6.
Harms  LMeierkord  HTimm  GPfeiffer  LLudolph  AC Decreased N-acetyl-aspartate/choline ratio and increased lactate in the frontal lobe of patients with Huntington's disease: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1997;6227- 30Article
7.
Koroshetz  WJJenkins  BGRosen  BRBeal  MF Energy metabolism defects in Huntington's disease and effects of coenzyme Q10Ann Neurol. 1997;41160- 165Article
8.
Block  WKaritzky  JTräber  F  et al.  Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the primary motor cortex in patients with motor neuron disease: subgroup analysis and follow-up measurements. Arch Neurol. 1998;55931- 936Article
9.
Cwik  VAHanstock  CCAllen  PSMartin  WRW Estimation of brainstem neuronal loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neurology. 1998;5072- 77Article
10.
Simmons  MLFrondoza  CGCoyle  JT Immunocytochemical localization of N-acetyl-aspartate with monoclonal antibodies. Neuroscience. 1991;4537- 45Article
11.
Urenjak  JWilliams  SRGadian  DGNoble  M Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy unambiguously identifies different neural cell types. J Neurosci. 1993;13981- 989
12.
Pavlakis  SGKingsley  PBKaplan  GPStacpole  PWO'Shea  MLustbader  D Magnetic resonance spectroscopy: use in monitoring MELAS treatment. Arch Neurol. 1998;55849- 852Article
13.
Nagashima  TSeko  KHirose  K  et al.  Familial bulbo-spinal muscular atrophy associated with testicular atrophy and sensory neuropathy (Kennedy-Alter-Sung syndrome): autopsy case report of two brothers. J Neurol Sci. 1988;87141- 152Article
14.
Sobue  GHashizume  YMakai  EHirayama  MMitsuma  TTakahashi  A X-linked recessive bulbospinal neuronopathy: a clinicopathological study. Brain. 1989;112209- 232Article
15.
Li  MMiwa  SKobayashi  Y  et al.  Nuclear inclusions of the androgen receptor protein in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Ann Neurol. 1998;44249- 254Article
16.
Shaw  PJThagesen  HTomkins  J  et al.  Kennedy's disease: unusual molecular pathologic and clinical features. Neurology. 1998;51252- 255Article
17.
Masaharu  MKakimoto  YSorimachi  M A gas chromatographic method for the determination of N-acetyl-aspartic acid, N-acetyl-aspartylglutamic acid and citryl-L-glutamic acid and their distributions in the brain and other organs of various species of animals. J Neurochem. 1981;36804- 810Article
18.
Koller  KJZaczek  RCoyle  JT N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate: regional levels in rat brain and the effect of brain lesions as determined by a new HPLC method. J Neurochem. 1984;431136- 1142Article
19.
Meyerhoff  DJMacKay  SConstans  JM  et al.  Axonal injury and membrane alterations in Alzheimer's disease suggested by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Ann Neurol. 1994;3640- 47Article
20.
Paulson  GWLiss  LSweeney  PJ Late onset spinal mucle atrophy: a sex-linked variant of Kugelberg-Welander. Acta Neurol Scand. 1980;6149- 55Article
21.
Furtado  SSucherowsky  ORewcastle  BGraham  LKlimek  MLGarber  A Relationship between trinucleotide repeats and neuropathological changes in Huntington's disease. Ann Neurol. 1996;39132- 136Article
22.
Penney  JBVonsattel  JPMacDonald  MEGusella  JFMyers  RH CAG repeat number governs the development rate of pathology in Huntington's disease. Ann Neurol. 1997;41689- 692Article
23.
Antonini  ALeenders  KLEidelberg  D [11C]Raclopride-PET studies of the Huntington's disease rate of progression: relevance of the trinucleotide repeat length. Ann Neurol. 1998;43253- 255Article
24.
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