[Skip to Content]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address 54.197.65.227. Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
Sign In
Individual Sign In
Create an Account
Institutional Sign In
OpenAthens Shibboleth
[Skip to Content Landing]
Figure 1.
Peristimulus histograms of 4 action-constrained neurons recorded from the monkey inferior parietal lobule. The 2 neurons on the left (units 67 and 87) discharged when grasping was embedded in a grasp-to-eat action but would not fire when grasping was the first step of a grasp-to-place action, though these 2 actions are identical. The opposite behavior was observed in the 2 neurons on the right side (units 161 and 39).

Peristimulus histograms of 4 action-constrained neurons recorded from the monkey inferior parietal lobule. The 2 neurons on the left (units 67 and 87) discharged when grasping was embedded in a grasp-to-eat action but would not fire when grasping was the first step of a grasp-to-place action, though these 2 actions are identical. The opposite behavior was observed in the 2 neurons on the right side (units 161 and 39).8

Figure 2.
Cortical areas related to the parietofrontal mirror system responding to different types of motor acts.Yellow indicates transitive distal movements; purple, reaching movements; orange, tool use; green, intransitive movements; blue, portion of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) responding to observation of upper-limb movements.IFG indicates inferior frontal gyrus; IPL, inferior parietal lobule; IPS, intraparietal sulcus; PMD, dorsal premotor cortex; PMV, ventral premotor cortex; and SPL, superior parietal lobule.

Cortical areas related to the parietofrontal mirror system responding to different types of motor acts.1014Yellow indicates transitive distal movements; purple, reaching movements; orange, tool use; green, intransitive movements; blue, portion of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) responding to observation of upper-limb movements.4IFG indicates inferior frontal gyrus; IPL, inferior parietal lobule; IPS, intraparietal sulcus; PMD, dorsal premotor cortex; PMV, ventral premotor cortex; and SPL, superior parietal lobule.

1.
Gallese  VFadiga  LFogassi  LRizzolatti  G Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain 1996;119 (pt 2) 593- 609
PubMedArticle
2.
Rizzolatti  GFadiga  LGallese  VFogassi  L Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 1996;3 (2) 131- 141
PubMedArticle
3.
Rizzolatti  GLuppino  GMatelli  M The organization of the cortical motor system: new concepts. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1998;106 (4) 283- 296
PubMedArticle
4.
Puce  APerrett  D Electrophysiology and brain imaging of biological motion. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2003;358 (1431) 435- 445
PubMedArticle
5.
Rizzolatti  GFogassi  LGallese  V Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the understanding and imitation of action. Nat Rev Neurosci 2001;2 (9) 661- 670
PubMedArticle
6.
Umiltà  MAKohler  EGallese  V  et al.  I know what you are doing: a neurophysiological study. Neuron 2001;31 (1) 155- 165
PubMedArticle
7.
Kohler  EKeysers  CUmilta  MAFogassi  LGallese  VRizzolatti  G Hearing sounds, understanding actions: action representation in mirror neurons. Science 2002;297 (5582) 846- 848
PubMedArticle
8.
Fogassi  LFerrari  PFGesierich  BRozzi  SChersi  FRizzolatti  G Parietal lobe: from action organization to intention understanding. Science 2005;308 (5722) 662- 667
PubMedArticle
9.
Rizzolatti  GCraighero  L The mirror-neuron system. Annu Rev Neurosci 2004;27169- 192
PubMedArticle
10.
Buccino  GBinkofski  FFink  GR  et al.  Action observation activates premotor and parietal areas in a somatotopic manner: an fMRI study. Eur J Neurosci 2001;13 (2) 400- 404
PubMed
11.
Sakreida  KSchubotz  RIWolfensteller  Uvon Cramon  DY Motion class dependency in observers' motor areas revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci 2005;25 (6) 1335- 1342
PubMedArticle
12.
Filimon  FNelson  JDHagler  DJSereno  MI Human cortical representations for reaching: mirror neurons for execution, observation, and imagery. Neuroimage 2007;37 (4) 1315- 1328
PubMedArticle
13.
Lui  FBuccino  GDuzzi  D  et al.  Neural substrates for observing and imagining non object-directed actions. Soc Neurosci 2008;3 (3-4) 261- 275
PubMedArticle
14.
Orban  GAPeeters  RNelissen  KBuccino  GVanduffel  WRizzolatti  G The use of tools, a unique human feature represented in the left parietal cortex [program No. 114.2].  Presented at: Neuroscience 2006 Meeting; Atlanta, GA October 15, 2006
15.
Fadiga  LCraighero  LOlivier  E Human motor cortex excitability during the perception of others' action. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2005;15 (2) 213- 218
PubMedArticle
16.
Gangitano  MMottaghy  FMPascual-Leone  A Phase-specific modulation of cortical motor output during movement observation. Neuroreport 2001;12 (7) 1489- 1492
PubMedArticle
17.
Strafella  APPaus  T Modulation of cortical excitability during action observation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Neuroreport 2000;11 (10) 2289- 2292
PubMedArticle
18.
Gangitano  MMottaghy  FMPascual-Leone  A Modulation of premotor mirror neuron activity during observation of unpredictable grasping movements. Eur J Neurosci 2004;20 (8) 2193- 2202
PubMedArticle
19.
Buccino  GLui  FCanessa  N  et al.  Neural circuits involved in the recognition of actions performed by nonconspecifics: an FMRI study. J Cogn Neurosci 2004;16 (1) 114- 126
PubMedArticle
20.
Calvo-Merino  BGlaser  DEGrezes  JPassingham  REHaggard  P Action observation and acquired motor skills: an FMRI study with expert dancers. Cereb Cortex 2005;15 (8) 1243- 1249
PubMedArticle
21.
Calvo-Merino  BGrezes  JGlaser  DEPassingham  REHaggard  P Seeing or doing? influence of visual and motor familiarity in action observation. Curr Biol 2006;16 (19) 1905- 1910
PubMedArticle
22.
Cross  ESHamilton  AFGrafton  ST Building a motor simulation de novo: observation of dance by dancers. Neuroimage 2006;31 (3) 1257- 1267
PubMedArticle
23.
Buccino  GVogt  SRitzl  A  et al.  Neural circuits underlying imitation learning of hand actions: an event-related fMRI study. Neuron 2004;42 (2) 323- 334
PubMedArticle
24.
Stefan  KCohen  LGDuque  J  et al.  Formation of a motor memory by action observation. J Neurosci 2005;25 (41) 9339- 9346
PubMedArticle
25.
Stefan  KClassen  JCelnik  PCohen  LG Concurrent action observation modulates practice-induced motor memory formation. Eur J Neurosci 2008;27 (3) 730- 738
PubMedArticle
26.
Catmur  CWalsh  VHeyes  C Sensorimotor learning configures the human mirror system. Curr Biol 2007;17 (17) 1527- 1531
PubMedArticle
27.
Cattaneo  LFabbri-Destro  MBoria  S  et al.  Impairment of actions chains in autism and its possible role in intention understanding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007;104 (45) 17825- 17830
PubMedArticle
28.
Iacoboni  MMolnar-Szakacs  IGallese  VBuccino  GMazziotta  JCRizzolatti  G Grasping the intentions of others with one's own mirror neuron system. PLoS Biol 2005;3 (3) e79
PubMedArticle
29.
Hamilton  AFGrafton  ST Action outcomes are represented in human inferior frontoparietal cortex. Cereb Cortex 2008;18 (5) 1160- 1168
PubMedArticle
30.
Wheaton  LAHallett  M Ideomotor apraxia: a review. J Neurol Sci 2007;260 (1-2) 1- 10
PubMedArticle
31.
Leiguarda  RCMarsden  CD Limb apraxias: higher-order disorders of sensorimotor integration. Brain 2000;123 (pt 5) 860- 879
PubMedArticle
32.
Oberman  LMRamachandran  VS The simulating social mind: the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits of autism spectrum disorders. Psychol Bull 2007;133 (2) 310- 327
PubMedArticle
33.
Williams  JHWhiten  ASuddendorf  TPerrett  DI Imitation, mirror neurons and autism. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2001;25 (4) 287- 295
PubMedArticle
34.
Minshew  NJWilliams  DL The new neurobiology of autism: cortex, connectivity, and neuronal organization. Arch Neurol 2007;64 (7) 945- 950
PubMedArticle
35.
Théoret  HHalligan  EKobayashi  MFregni  FTager-Flusberg  HPascual-Leone  A Impaired motor facilitation during action observation in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Curr Biol 2005;15 (3) R84- R85
PubMedArticle
36.
Dapretto  MDavies  MSPfeifer  JH  et al.  Understanding emotions in others: mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders. Nat Neurosci 2006;9 (1) 28- 30
PubMedArticle
37.
Hadjikhani  NJoseph  RMSnyder  JTager-Flusberg  H Anatomical differences in the mirror neuron system and social cognition network in autism. Cereb Cortex 2006;16 (9) 1276- 1282
PubMedArticle
38.
Oberman  LMHubbard  EM McCleery  JPAltschuler  ELRamachandran  VSPineda  JA EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 2005;24 (2) 190- 198
PubMedArticle
39.
Taub  EUswatt  G Constraint-Induced Movement therapy: answers and questions after two decades of research. NeuroRehabilitation 2006;21 (2) 93- 95
PubMed
40.
Alonso-Alonso  MFregni  FPascual-Leone  A Brain stimulation in poststroke rehabilitation. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007;24 ((suppl 1)) 157- 166
PubMedArticle
41.
Ertelt  DSmall  SSolodkin  A  et al.  Action observation has a positive impact on rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke. Neuroimage 2007;36 ((suppl 2)) T164- T173
PubMedArticle
Neurological Review
May 2009

The Mirror Neuron System

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations:Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università di Parma, Parma, Italy.

 

DAVID E.PLEASUREMD

Arch Neurol. 2009;66(5):557-560. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2009.41
Abstract

Mirror neurons are a class of neurons, originally discovered in the premotor cortex of monkeys, that discharge both when individuals perform a given motor act and when they observe others perform that same motor act. Ample evidence demonstrates the existence of a cortical network with the properties of mirror neurons (mirror system) in humans. The human mirror system is involved in understanding others' actions and their intentions behind them, and it underlies mechanisms of observational learning. Herein, we will discuss the clinical implications of the mirror system.

Mirror neurons were first described in the F5 sector of the macaque ventral premotor cortex.1,2These neurons, like most neurons in F5, discharge in association with movements that have a specific goal (motor acts). They do not fire when a monkey executes simple movements, that is, during active displacement of a body part devoid of a specific goal.

Neurons with the same characteristics as those in area F5 were also found in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) of monkeys. These 2 areas form a network that is embedded in the system of parietofrontal circuits that organize actions.3Visual information on biological motor acts reaches F5 through connections with the superior temporal sulcus, where actions performed by biological agents are coded.4In the superior temporal sulcus, neurons do not appear to discharge in association with motor behavior.

It is generally assumed that the main functional role of parietofrontal mirror neurons is to understand motor acts performed by others in an automatic way, ie, by matching them to the monkey's own motor repertoire.5Evidence in favor of this hypothesis came from experiments that showed that F5 mirror neurons also fire when monkeys cannot see the triggering feature of a motor act but have sufficient clues to understand its goal6or when monkeys recognize an action from its sound only.7These data indicate that premotor mirror neurons discharge whenever the monkey builds up an internal representation of a motor act made by another agent, even if the monkey does not see it.

Recent data on the motor organization of the IPL show that mirror neurons are involved in more complex functions than motor act understanding. It was found that most hand-related neurons in the IPL differently encode the same motor act when it is embedded in different actions (eg, grasp to eat and grasp to place). These have been named action-constrained neurons.8Most interestingly, many of these neurons have mirror properties that are congruent with the action-constrained pattern. Their behavior is illustrated in Figure 1. These findings indicate that action-constrained parietal mirror neurons do not only encode the observed motor act (eg, grasping), but also the aim of the observed action. It has been hypothesized that this organization provides a neural substrate for understanding the goal of the entire observed action before it is concluded.

THE MIRROR SYSTEM IN HUMANS

Evidence of the existence of a mirror system in humans comes from neuroimaging studies and noninvasive neurophysiological investigations (electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS]).9Neuroimaging demonstrated the existence of 2 main networks with mirror properties: one residing in the parietal lobe and the premotor cortex plus the caudal part of the inferior frontal gyrus (parietofrontal mirror system) (Figure 1), and the other formed by the insula and the anterior mesial frontal cortex (limbic mirror system). The parietofrontal mirror system is involved in recognition of voluntary behavior, while the limbic mirror system is devoted to the recognition of affective behavior. In the present review, we will describe only the first system.

REPRESENTATION OF OBSERVED MOTOR ACTS IN THE PREMOTOR AND PARIETAL CORTICES

A series of experiments have addressed the issue of the anatomical and functional organization of the parietofrontal mirror system. Most of them investigated transitive (goal-directed), distal motor acts. These studies showed that these acts are coded in the ventral premotor cortex according to a rough somatotopic organization,10,11with motor acts in the legs being located dorsally, oral acts located ventrally, and manual acts in an intermediate position.10The localization of proximal motor acts, ie, the transport phase of the hand to a particular location, was found in a recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to be represented more dorsally than grasping acts, in the dorsal premotor cortex.12

These studies and other works have also explored the representation of observed motor acts in the parietal cortex. Transitive motor acts were found to be represented in the intraparietal sulcus and on the IPL convexity immediately adjacent to it.10,11Additional studies have investigated the organization of the parietal lobe during the observation of actions different from distal goal-directed acts. Reaching movements were shown to be located in the superior parietal lobule, extending ventrally into the intraparietal sulcus. Intransitive (non–object directed) manual actions have been shown to have their own specific parietal representation located—regardless of the act being symbolic, mimed, or meaningless—in the posterior part of the supramarginal gyrus, extending into the angular gyrus.13Finally, the observation of actions made with tools, besides activating the hand-manipulating region, specifically activates the most rostral part of the supramarginal gyrus, ventral to the area of representation of hand grasping.14

CONGRUENCE BETWEEN OBSERVED MOVEMENTS AND MOTOR ACTIVATION IN THE OBSERVER

In healthy adults, observation of others' motor behavior does not induce overt motor activity in the observer. However, several studies have discovered a subliminal motor activation that is associated with action observation by applying TMS over the primary motor cortex,15which also showed a strong congruence between the observed motor behavior and the evoked motor output.16An increase in the observer's motor evoked potentials is found when recording from the same muscles that are recruited in movement execution and with the same activation timing. This phenomenon occurs mostly at the cortical level as shown by TMS paired-pulse paradigms.17

Transcranial magnetic stimulation experiments have provided strong evidence that the human mirror system also codes simple movements. However, in agreement with fMRI and monkey data, TMS can also reveal mirror activation related to the goal of the observed motor act. A TMS study showed that while observing a reaching and grasping act that is suddenly modified by an unpredictable movement, motor evoked potential facilitation mirrors the time course of the predicted motor act rather than adjusting to its incongruent variant in real time.18

MOTOR EXPERIENCE AND MOTOR LEARNING

There is evidence that only motor acts that are present in the motor repertoire of the observer are effective in activating the mirror system. This was shown in an fMRI experiment in which oral actions made by humans, monkeys, and dogs were presented to normal human volunteers. The data demonstrated that the left hemisphere IPL and inferior frontal gyrus responded to actions made by a human and a nonhuman performer, as long as the action was part of the motor repertoire of the human observer (eg, biting for eating). The mirror system failed to be activated when the action belonged to another species (eg, barking).19

Activation of the mirror system is also related to the observer's motor experience of a given action. This has been clearly demonstrated in experiments that use dance steps as observed stimuli. First, it was shown that, in the observer, the amount of mirror activation correlated with the degree of his or her motor skill for that action.20Another experiment ruled out the possibility that this effect could be due to mere visual familiarity with the stimuli. Observing steps particular to male dancers produced a stronger mirror activation in professional male dancers than those performed by female dancers and vice versa.21An additional prospective study showed that dancers who were initially naive to certain steps showed an increase in mirror activation over time if they underwent a period of motor training in which they became skilful in performing the same steps.22

The mechanism involved in learning by imitation has been investigated in an fMRI study in which naive participants were asked to imitate guitar chords played by an expert player. Cortical activations were mapped during chord observation, a subsequent pause, and execution of the chord. The results showed that during new motor pattern formation, ie, in the pause between observation and execution, there was a strong activation of the mirror system, namely the IPL, the ventral premotor, and the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus plus Brodmann area 46 and the anterior mesial cortex.23

Direct evidence that convergence of observation and execution strongly facilitates the building of motor memories comes from TMS studies. These studies have shown that after a training period in which participants simultaneously performed and observed congruent movements, there was a potentiation of the learning effect with respect to motor training alone, as shown by the kinematics of the movement evoked by TMS.24,25This finding indicates that coupling observation and execution significantly increases plasticity in the motor cortex. Another TMS experiment showed that the muscle recruitment typically congruent with observed movements can be modified in the short-term by experience. Participants were trained to perform one movement while observing another. After training, the typical mirror effect was reversed. Increase in motor evoked potentials was now present in the muscle that controlled the practiced movement rather than in the muscle that controlled the observed movement.26

INTENTION CODING IN THE MIRROR SYSTEM

Recent evidence suggests that organization of a chained motor act similar to that underlying intention understanding in monkeys8is also present in humans. In an electromyogram experiment, typically developing children were asked to observe the experimenter who grasped a piece of food and brought it to his mouth or grasped an object and placed it into a container. An activation of the mouth-opening muscles was recorded during observation of the reaching and grasping phases when they preceded eating but not when the same acts preceded placing. This activation showed a capacity of the child's motor system to predict the experimenter's intention.27

In line with this conclusion, 2 fMRI studies demonstrated an involvement of the mirror system of the right hemisphere in understanding intentions. In the first, contextual features were used to clarify the intention behind a hand-object interaction.28In the process of inferring intentions, the frontal node of the mirror system in the right hemisphere was recruited. In a second study, the right mirror system was found to be sensitive to the outcome of an action, such as opening or closing a box, independent of the means to achieve this outcome.29Taken together, these 2 studies indicate an important role of the right mirror system in ascribing intentions to others.

THE MIRROR SYSTEM IN DISEASE

From the point of view of the neurologist, it is important to conceive the mirror system not as a separated, self-standing neuronal system, but rather as a mechanism intrinsic to most motor-related cortical areas. In fact, it is increasingly clear that most cortical areas that organize movements also respond to movement observation (Figure 2). This conceptualization of the mirror system allows one to understand the lack of a selective impairment in functions that are attributed to the mirror system following focal lesions. A possible example of this is ideomotor apraxia. In this syndrome, some behavioral aspects, such as imitation deficits, may indicate mirror neuron system failure, but others, eg, the dissociation between spontaneous and on-command behavior, do not appear to be directly related to this mechanism.30Similarly, the dissociation between deficits in the imitation of transitive, intransitive, or tool-use acts may be interpreted as being due to lesions of specific sectors of the mirror network.31However, the mirror mechanism as such does not explain the motor deficits that may be associated with them.

It is more likely that syndromes of mirror system dysfunction are clinically evident in developmental disorders of the nervous system. Indeed, a role of mirror system dysfunction has recently been hypothesized for autism spectrum disorder.32,33Autism spectrum disorder is most likely a polygenetic disorder that is expressed as impairment of gray matter architecture and of corticocortical intrahemispheric connections.34Clinically, some functional deficits typical of autism spectrum disorder, such as deficits in imitation, emotional empathy, and attributing intentions to others, have a clear counterpart in the functions of the mirror system. Evidence of an involvement of the mirror system in autism has been repeatedly reported in recent years.27,3538

Another aspect of possible clinical relevance of the mirror system is rehabilitation of the upper limbs after stroke. Recently, several approaches to stroke rehabilitation have been devised using techniques that induce long-term cortical plasticity.39,40The data on plasticity induced by motor observation provide a conceptual basis for application of action-observation protocols in stroke rehabilitation. Preliminary data indicate that this approach may produce significant clinical results.41

Back to top
Article Information

Correspondence:Giacomo Rizzolatti, MD, Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Sezione Fisiologia, Università di Parma, via Volturno 39, 43100 Parma, Italy (giacomo.rizzolatti@unipr.it).

Accepted for Publication:May 31, 2008.

Author Contributions:Study concept and design: Cattaneo and Rizzolatti. Drafting of the manuscript: Cattaneo and Rizzolatti. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Cattaneo and Rizzolatti. Obtained funding: Rizzolatti. Study supervision: Cattaneo and Rizzolatti.

Financial Disclosure: None reported.

References
1.
Gallese  VFadiga  LFogassi  LRizzolatti  G Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain 1996;119 (pt 2) 593- 609
PubMedArticle
2.
Rizzolatti  GFadiga  LGallese  VFogassi  L Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 1996;3 (2) 131- 141
PubMedArticle
3.
Rizzolatti  GLuppino  GMatelli  M The organization of the cortical motor system: new concepts. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1998;106 (4) 283- 296
PubMedArticle
4.
Puce  APerrett  D Electrophysiology and brain imaging of biological motion. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2003;358 (1431) 435- 445
PubMedArticle
5.
Rizzolatti  GFogassi  LGallese  V Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the understanding and imitation of action. Nat Rev Neurosci 2001;2 (9) 661- 670
PubMedArticle
6.
Umiltà  MAKohler  EGallese  V  et al.  I know what you are doing: a neurophysiological study. Neuron 2001;31 (1) 155- 165
PubMedArticle
7.
Kohler  EKeysers  CUmilta  MAFogassi  LGallese  VRizzolatti  G Hearing sounds, understanding actions: action representation in mirror neurons. Science 2002;297 (5582) 846- 848
PubMedArticle
8.
Fogassi  LFerrari  PFGesierich  BRozzi  SChersi  FRizzolatti  G Parietal lobe: from action organization to intention understanding. Science 2005;308 (5722) 662- 667
PubMedArticle
9.
Rizzolatti  GCraighero  L The mirror-neuron system. Annu Rev Neurosci 2004;27169- 192
PubMedArticle
10.
Buccino  GBinkofski  FFink  GR  et al.  Action observation activates premotor and parietal areas in a somatotopic manner: an fMRI study. Eur J Neurosci 2001;13 (2) 400- 404
PubMed
11.
Sakreida  KSchubotz  RIWolfensteller  Uvon Cramon  DY Motion class dependency in observers' motor areas revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci 2005;25 (6) 1335- 1342
PubMedArticle
12.
Filimon  FNelson  JDHagler  DJSereno  MI Human cortical representations for reaching: mirror neurons for execution, observation, and imagery. Neuroimage 2007;37 (4) 1315- 1328
PubMedArticle
13.
Lui  FBuccino  GDuzzi  D  et al.  Neural substrates for observing and imagining non object-directed actions. Soc Neurosci 2008;3 (3-4) 261- 275
PubMedArticle
14.
Orban  GAPeeters  RNelissen  KBuccino  GVanduffel  WRizzolatti  G The use of tools, a unique human feature represented in the left parietal cortex [program No. 114.2].  Presented at: Neuroscience 2006 Meeting; Atlanta, GA October 15, 2006
15.
Fadiga  LCraighero  LOlivier  E Human motor cortex excitability during the perception of others' action. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2005;15 (2) 213- 218
PubMedArticle
16.
Gangitano  MMottaghy  FMPascual-Leone  A Phase-specific modulation of cortical motor output during movement observation. Neuroreport 2001;12 (7) 1489- 1492
PubMedArticle
17.
Strafella  APPaus  T Modulation of cortical excitability during action observation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Neuroreport 2000;11 (10) 2289- 2292
PubMedArticle
18.
Gangitano  MMottaghy  FMPascual-Leone  A Modulation of premotor mirror neuron activity during observation of unpredictable grasping movements. Eur J Neurosci 2004;20 (8) 2193- 2202
PubMedArticle
19.
Buccino  GLui  FCanessa  N  et al.  Neural circuits involved in the recognition of actions performed by nonconspecifics: an FMRI study. J Cogn Neurosci 2004;16 (1) 114- 126
PubMedArticle
20.
Calvo-Merino  BGlaser  DEGrezes  JPassingham  REHaggard  P Action observation and acquired motor skills: an FMRI study with expert dancers. Cereb Cortex 2005;15 (8) 1243- 1249
PubMedArticle
21.
Calvo-Merino  BGrezes  JGlaser  DEPassingham  REHaggard  P Seeing or doing? influence of visual and motor familiarity in action observation. Curr Biol 2006;16 (19) 1905- 1910
PubMedArticle
22.
Cross  ESHamilton  AFGrafton  ST Building a motor simulation de novo: observation of dance by dancers. Neuroimage 2006;31 (3) 1257- 1267
PubMedArticle
23.
Buccino  GVogt  SRitzl  A  et al.  Neural circuits underlying imitation learning of hand actions: an event-related fMRI study. Neuron 2004;42 (2) 323- 334
PubMedArticle
24.
Stefan  KCohen  LGDuque  J  et al.  Formation of a motor memory by action observation. J Neurosci 2005;25 (41) 9339- 9346
PubMedArticle
25.
Stefan  KClassen  JCelnik  PCohen  LG Concurrent action observation modulates practice-induced motor memory formation. Eur J Neurosci 2008;27 (3) 730- 738
PubMedArticle
26.
Catmur  CWalsh  VHeyes  C Sensorimotor learning configures the human mirror system. Curr Biol 2007;17 (17) 1527- 1531
PubMedArticle
27.
Cattaneo  LFabbri-Destro  MBoria  S  et al.  Impairment of actions chains in autism and its possible role in intention understanding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007;104 (45) 17825- 17830
PubMedArticle
28.
Iacoboni  MMolnar-Szakacs  IGallese  VBuccino  GMazziotta  JCRizzolatti  G Grasping the intentions of others with one's own mirror neuron system. PLoS Biol 2005;3 (3) e79
PubMedArticle
29.
Hamilton  AFGrafton  ST Action outcomes are represented in human inferior frontoparietal cortex. Cereb Cortex 2008;18 (5) 1160- 1168
PubMedArticle
30.
Wheaton  LAHallett  M Ideomotor apraxia: a review. J Neurol Sci 2007;260 (1-2) 1- 10
PubMedArticle
31.
Leiguarda  RCMarsden  CD Limb apraxias: higher-order disorders of sensorimotor integration. Brain 2000;123 (pt 5) 860- 879
PubMedArticle
32.
Oberman  LMRamachandran  VS The simulating social mind: the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits of autism spectrum disorders. Psychol Bull 2007;133 (2) 310- 327
PubMedArticle
33.
Williams  JHWhiten  ASuddendorf  TPerrett  DI Imitation, mirror neurons and autism. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2001;25 (4) 287- 295
PubMedArticle
34.
Minshew  NJWilliams  DL The new neurobiology of autism: cortex, connectivity, and neuronal organization. Arch Neurol 2007;64 (7) 945- 950
PubMedArticle
35.
Théoret  HHalligan  EKobayashi  MFregni  FTager-Flusberg  HPascual-Leone  A Impaired motor facilitation during action observation in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Curr Biol 2005;15 (3) R84- R85
PubMedArticle
36.
Dapretto  MDavies  MSPfeifer  JH  et al.  Understanding emotions in others: mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders. Nat Neurosci 2006;9 (1) 28- 30
PubMedArticle
37.
Hadjikhani  NJoseph  RMSnyder  JTager-Flusberg  H Anatomical differences in the mirror neuron system and social cognition network in autism. Cereb Cortex 2006;16 (9) 1276- 1282
PubMedArticle
38.
Oberman  LMHubbard  EM McCleery  JPAltschuler  ELRamachandran  VSPineda  JA EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 2005;24 (2) 190- 198
PubMedArticle
39.
Taub  EUswatt  G Constraint-Induced Movement therapy: answers and questions after two decades of research. NeuroRehabilitation 2006;21 (2) 93- 95
PubMed
40.
Alonso-Alonso  MFregni  FPascual-Leone  A Brain stimulation in poststroke rehabilitation. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007;24 ((suppl 1)) 157- 166
PubMedArticle
41.
Ertelt  DSmall  SSolodkin  A  et al.  Action observation has a positive impact on rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke. Neuroimage 2007;36 ((suppl 2)) T164- T173
PubMedArticle
×