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Brief Report
June 29, 2017

Eye Health Knowledge and Eye Health Information Exposure Among Hispanic/Latino IndividualsResults From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

Author Affiliations
  • 1Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida
  • 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida
  • 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago
  • 4Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida
  • 5Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida
JAMA Ophthalmol. Published online June 29, 2017. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.1998
Key Points

Question  What sociodemographic, health, and behavioral factors are associated with better eye health knowledge and exposure to more sources of eye health information among Hispanic/Latino people?

Findings  In this cross-sectional ocular study of 1235 Hispanic/Latino individuals who were surveyed, higher educational level and better mental health status were associated with better general eye health knowledge. More education, better income, and older age were associated with exposure to more sources of eye health information.

Meaning  To improve eye health knowledge in the Hispanic/Latino population, culturally relevant and accessible campaigns are needed, particularly targeting individuals younger than 60 years and those living in poverty.

Abstract

Importance  Routine eye care is important to maintaining eye health and preventing visual impairment. However, poor knowledge of ocular risk factors and disease as well as minimal exposure to eye health information may compromise adherence to eye care recommendations. Studies have shown that Hispanic/Latino people have poor eye care utilization, but little is known about their knowledge of eye health and exposure to eye health information.

Objective  To examine factors associated with more eye health knowledge and greater exposure to eye health information among Hispanic/Latino people.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This was a cross-sectional ocular study of 1235 participants living in the Miami, Florida, site of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a multisite epidemiologic study of disease prevalence and development among Hispanic/Latino people. Data were collected from October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2013, and data analyses were conducted between May 28, 2014, and March 18, 2015. Descriptive and multivariable regression analyses were performed for 3 ocular health care outcomes. Regression models were built sequentially, with variables conceptually grouped according to Andersen’s Behavioral Model of Health Services Use and Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Ability to identify 8 factors on a general eye health knowledge scale and number of eye health information sources seen or heard about in the past 12 months.

Results  Of the 1235 participants, 748 (73.4%) self-identified as being of Cuban descent and 407 (19.2%) self-identified as being from Central or South America, 478 (46.7%) were women and 757 (53.3%) were men, and the mean (SD) age was 53.6 (8.1) years. Participants with at least a high school degree or general educational development certificate had greater eye health knowledge (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15 and IRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17, respectively) as did those with a higher mental health score on the Short Form 12-Item, version 2, Health Survey (IRR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04). Those with educational attainment beyond a high school degree or a general educational development certificate (IRR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.07-1.54), those who were 60 years or older (IRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.06-1.63), and those with a household income in US dollars of $20 001 to $40 000 (IRR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.44) or greater than $40 000 (IRR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.98-1.59) were more likely to be exposed to at least 5 sources of eye health information in the past 12 months.

Conclusions and Relevance  Among Hispanic/Latino people, age, educational level, income, and mental health may be important correlates of eye disease knowledge and eye health information exposure. These findings might be used to support the development of targeted interventions designed to improve eye health in this population.

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