Images of the fundus were acquired in children without pupil dilation using a prototype handheld confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). A 780-nm laser beam imaged a 20° × 20° area of the fundus while a 645-nm beam scanned a fixation target. Scorable images of the optic nerve, macula, and vessels were obtained in 67 (72%) of 93 eyes from pediatric patients with nystagmus, amblyopia, media opacities, or optic nerve or macular abnormalities. Images were obtained in all eyes of pediatric and adult controls. Unsuccessful imaging was associated with media opacities, high refractive error, and poor cooperation. Disadvantages of the SLO were the inability to detect optic nerve pallor or consistently image the periphery. Advantages of the SLO were seen in children with nystagmus, photophobia, eccentric fixation, cone dystrophy, and mild papilledema.
Kelly JP, Weiss AH, Zhou Q, Schmode S, Dreher AW. Imaging a Child's Fundus Without Dilation Using a Handheld Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121(3):391-396. doi:10.1001/archopht.121.3.391