There are two meanings to the word “translation.” In linguistics, as in common usage, translation signifies the transformation of one or more words from one language to another, usually with different words, grammar, and syntax. This meaning of translation corresponds to the commonly used concept of “translational research,” whereby a treatment or diagnostic test is first studied in the laboratory and then translated to clinical trials and eventual use in patients. This approach is not always successful, and in many cases, a treatment that works in the laboratory does not work in the patient. Fortunately, there are exceptions to this, eg, drugs that lower intraocular pressure.
Levin LA. Focus on Translational Ophthalmology. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127(4):572. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2009.50