The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation of renal lesions to the retinal alterations which appear during the course of chronic nephritis. While the clinical and pathologic observations on the subject and the hypotheses explaining the phenomena are numerous, the experimental investigations which may help to interpret the clinical and pathologic findings are scanty.
Bright, about one century ago, expressed the opinion that the retinal alterations depend on the renal insufficiency, and since albuminuria is one of the chief symptoms of nephritis, he ascribed the retinal lesions to the presence of albumin. Graefe1 later said that this form of retinitis is due to a general disease of the arterial system, or to a cause which attacks the renal vessels as well as the retinal vessels. According to him, there is a primary degeneration (arteriophlebosclerosis) of the retinal vessels which brings about all the retinal lesions.
LA ROCCA V. ALTERATIONS OF RETINA IN EXPERIMENTAL TOXIC NEPHROSIS. Arch Ophthalmol. 1934;12(4):509–517. doi:10.1001/archopht.1934.00830170047006