Cerebrospinal meningitis was first described as a clinical entity by Vieusseaux and Matthey in 1805. In this country cases were first reported in 1808, and there was a widespread epidemic in New England in 1814. The disease has been epidemic in various places from time to time. These epidemics are followed by quiescent periods in which isolated cases appear, and after a time fresh outbreaks occur. The condition is most commonly seen in children, but when it attains epidemic proportions persons of all ages are affected. Even in epidemics, cases occur usually in the winter and early spring months. Infection occurs by direct contact with a patient suffering from the disease or with a carrier.
Micrococcus intracellularis meningitidis was first accurately described by Weichselbaum2 in 1887. It is a gram-negative diplococcus, growing only on mediums enriched with blood, ascitic fluid or starch. The colonies are round with
DUNPHY EB. OCULAR COMPLICATIONS OF CEREBROSPINAL MENINGITIS. Arch Ophthalmol. 1936;15(1):118–124. doi:10.1001/archopht.1936.00840130128018