Children who make little or no progress in learning to read during their first two or three years in school quite naturally are often referred to the ophthalmologist, and some of them undoubtedly need corrective lenses. However, many, if not the majority, of them have adequate vision and in reality present neurologic problems. One owes a considerable debt to two English ophthalmologists—Morgan, who described the first case of congenital word blindness in 1896, and Hinschelwood, who published a small monograph on this subject in 1917. In his report Hinschelwood included several cases of acquired word blindness, as well as a group of the congenital type, and emphasized the striking parallelism between them; because of this likeness, he ascribed the occurrence of the syndrome in children to a failure of development of the cerebral cortex in the neighborhood of the angular gyrus.
In 1926 I studied several cases of delay in
ORTON ST. VISUAL FUNCTIONS IN STREPHOSYMBOLIA. Arch Ophthalmol. 1943;30(6):707–717. doi:10.1001/archopht.1943.00880240021001