AMBLYOPIA following acute loss of blood is an old, but relatively rare, disease. An average of 1 case a year has been reported in the world's literature in the past twenty-five years. Colonel Derrick Vail saw only 4 cases of such visual loss in his vast experience in military ophthalmology in Europe in World War II.
That the pathogenesis of atrophy of the optic nerve following hemorrhage is imperfectly understood is evidenced by the numerous and varied theories (recently summarized by Cox1) that have been put forth to explain the condition. Knowledge of its pathogenesis is limited because few such blind eyes have ever been examined microscopically. The few histologic studies made have revealed edema of the retinas and optic disks with degenerative changes in the retinal ganglion cells, similar to those associated with quinine poisoning. In addition, Goerlitz2 observed foci of degeneration in the optic nerve behind
LEVATIN MP. ATROPHY OF THE OPTIC NERVE FOLLOWING HEMORRHAGE. Arch Ophthalmol. 1947;37(1):18-24. doi:10.1001/archopht.1947.00890220023003