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After a short introduction on the anatomy and physiology of the optic chiasm, the chiasmal syndrome is described and two groups. of symptoms are distinguished: (1) main symptoms, which are the result of a direct lesion of the chiasm (changes in the visual field, reduction of vision and changes in the eyeground); (2) secondary symptoms, which sometimes accompany the first group, though they are not so frequent and are not the direct result of the chiasml lesion but depend on the kind, localization and extent of the process which has caused the chiasmal syndrome (hypophysial and hypothalamic symptoms; roentgen findings; encephaloventriculoarteriographic appearances). Surgically, the lesions which produce a chiasmal syndrome may be divided into two groups: (1) lesions which are caused by direct injury to the chiasm and (2) indirect involvement of the chiasm by hydrocephalus of the third ventricle or by indirect pressure from the adjoining parts of the
Knapp A. Non-hypophysäre chiasmasyndrome.. Arch Ophthalmol. 1948;39(2):260. doi:10.1001/archopht.1948.00900020265018